communicable diseases affecting Navy and Marine
A hygienically safe and continuously dependable
water supply is a necessity of life. Drinking water
should be free of disease-producing organisms,
poisonous chemicals, as well as from objectionable
color, odor, and taste. For more detailed instruction on
these topics, you should review the Manual of Naval
Preventive Medicine, NAVMED P-5010.
Water Supply Ashore
With rare exceptions, Navy and Marine Corps
activities ashore within the continental limits of the
United States are situated where a municipal water
supply is available. BUMEDINST 6240.1, Standards
for Potable Water, sets drinking water standards for
U.S. naval establishments worldwide, both ashore and
Water Supply in the Field
Hospital Corpsmen are frequently called upon to
approve field water sources and to recommend
disinfection methods before water is considered safe to
drink. Consider water acquired in the field as unsafe
until it has been disinfected and tested. Approval of
water sources should be based on a thorough
surveillance of available water sources.
WATER QUANTITY REQUIREMENTS.
The daily water requirements for personnel in the field
vary with a number of factors, including the season of
the year, geographical location, and the tactical
situation. Personnel who do not drink enough water
can quickly become dehydrated both in extremely hot
or extremely cold climates.
WATER TREATMENT.Water treatment is the
process of purifying water to make it potable (safe to
drink). Various processes can be used to purify water.
These processes include aeration, coagulation,
flocculation, filtration, reverse osmosis, and
disinfection, all of which are discussed in depth in
Water Supply Afloat
Potable water for shipboard use comes from one of
the ships distillation plant,
shore-to-ship delivery, or ship-to-ship transfer. The
ships medical department is responsible for
determining the quality of the water.
engineering section determines the quantity stored or
produced, and performs the actual chlorination or
Naval vessels follow water testing requirements
and procedures outlined in the latest edition of
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater, published by the American Public Health
Association (APHA), American Water Works
Association (AWWA), and the Water Pollution
Control Federation (WPCF).
Manufacture and Handling of Ice
Most ships and shore activities use ice machines to
make ice. To reduce bacterial growth, ice used around
food or in food or drink must be made from potable
water. All ice must be prepared in a sanitary manner
and afforded the same protection as potable water. The
medical departments aboard ships are required to
include ice samples in any bacteriological analyses
they perform on water.
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND
Wastewater is the spent water of a ship, base,
industrial plant, or other activity. This spent water
contains wastes, such as soil, detergent, and sewage.
The proper disposal of these waste materials is one of
the most important measures for controlling
water-borne diseases, such as cholera and typhoid
Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
The use of approved municipal or regional
wastewater collection and disposal systems is the
preferred method for disposing of wastes from shore
Accordingly, municipal or regional
wastewater disposal systems are used by Navy shore
activities whenever feasible.
Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
The overboard discharge of untreated sewage from
DoD ships within the navigable waters of the United