stands erect with the arms hanging at the sides and the
palms of the hands turned forward (fig. 1-2).
Other commonly used anatomical terms include
Anterior or ventraltoward the front, or ventral
(pertaining to the belly; abdomen), side of the body.
Posterior or dorsaltoward the back, or rear,
side of the body.
Medialnear or toward the midline of the body.
Lateralfarther away from the midline of the
Proximalnearer the point of origin or closer to
Distalaway from the point of origin or away
from the body.
Superiorhigher than or above.
Cranialtoward the head.
Caudaltoward the lower end of the body.
Inferiorlower than or below.
Erectnormal standing position of the body.
Supinelying position of the body, face up.
Pronelying position of the body, face down.
Lateral recumbentlying position of the body
on either side.
Peripheralthe outward part or surface of a
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING
characteristics of living matter.
All living things, animals and plants, are
organisms that undergo chemical processes by which
they sustain life and regenerate cells. The difference
between animals and plants is that animals have
sensations and the power of voluntary movement, and
they require oxygen and organic food. On the other
hand, plants require only carbon dioxide and inorganic
matter for food and have neither voluntary movement
nor special sensory organs.
In man, some of the characteristic functions
necessary for survival include digestion, metabolism,
and homeostasis. Digestion involves the physical and
chemical breakdown of the food we eat into its
simplest forms. Metabolism is the process of
absorption, storage, and use of these foods for body
growth, maintenance, and repair. Homeostasis is the
body's self-regulated control of its internal
environment. It allows the organism to maintain a state
of constancy or equilibrium, in spite of vast changes in
the external environment.
parts of the cell and their functions.
The cell, the smallest unit of life, is the basic
structural unit of all living things and a functional unit
all by itself. Cells are composed of a viscid, jellylike
substance, called protoplasm, upon which depend all
the vital functions of nutrition, secretion, growth,
Figure 1-2.Anatomical position.