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periosteum is the pain center of the bone. When a bone fractures, the pain that is felt comes from the periosteum, not the bone proper. Periosteum also forms new bone. The diaphysis is the elongated, cylindrical portion (or “shaft”) of the bone that is between the epiphyses (sing. epiphysis) or ends of the bone. BONE CLASSIFICATIONS Bones are classified according to their shape. The four bone classifications and examples of each are as follows:  Long bones—femur and humerus  Short bones—wrist and ankle bones  Flat bones—skull, sternum, and scapula  Irregular bones—vertebrae, mandible, and pelvic bones DIVISIONS OF SKELETON The human skeleton is divided into two main divisions, the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the vertebral column, and the thorax. 1-7 HM3F0113 CRANIUM FACE SKULL CLAVICLE SCAPULA STERNUM RIBS HUMERUS ULNA COXAL BONE RADIUS CARPALS FEMUR PATELLA TIBIA FIBULA TARSALS METATARSALS PHALANGES HYOID VERTEBRAL COLUMN METACARPAL VERTEBRAL COLUMN SACRUM COCCYX PHALANGES Figure 1-13.—Human skeleton.


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