After thorough irrigation loosely cover both eyes with a clean dressing. This prevents further damage by decreasing eye movement.
The aftercare for all chemical burns is similar to that for thermal burns: cover the affected area and get the victim to a medical treatment facility as soon as possible.
A special category of burns that may affect military personnel in a wartime or training situation is that caused by exposure of white phosphorus (WP or Willy Peter). First aid for this type of burn is complicated by the fact that white phosphorus particles ignite upon contact with air.
Superficial burns caused by simple skin contact or burning clothes should be flushed with water and treated like thermal burns. Partially embedded white phosphorus particles must be continuously flushed with water while the first aid provider removes them with whatever tools are available (i.e., tweezers, pliers, forceps). Do this quickly but gently. Firmly or deeply embedded particles that cannot be removed by the first aid provider must be covered with a saline soaked dressing, which must be kept wet until the victim reaches a medical treatment facility. The wounds containing embedded phosphorus particles may then be rinsed with a dilute, one percent freshly mixed solution of copper sulfate. This solution combines with phosphorus on the surface of the particles to form a blue-black cupric phosphite covering, which both impedes further oxidation and facilitates identification of retained particles. Under no circumstances should the copper sulfate solution be applied as a wet dressing. Wounds must be flushed thoroughly with a saline solution following the copper sulfate rinse to prevent absorption of excessive amounts of copper, since copper has been associated with extensive intravascular hemolysis. An adjunct to the management of phosphorus burn injuries is the identification of the retained phosphorescent particles in a darkened room during debridement.
NOTE: Combustion of white phosphorus results in the formation of a severe pulmonary irritant. The ignition of phosphorus in a closed space such as the BAS tent or sickbay may result in the development of irritant concentrations sufficient to cause acute inflammatory changes in the tracheobronchial tree. The effects of this gas, especially during debridement, can be minimized by placing a moist cloth over the nose and mouth to inactivate the gas and by ventilating the tent.
Excessive heat affects the body in a variety of ways. When a person exercises or works in a hot environment, heat builds up inside the body. The body automatically reacts to get rid of this heat through the sweating mechanism. This depletes water and electrolytes from the circulating volume. If they are not adequately replaced, body functions are affected, and initially, heat cramps and heat exhaustion develop. If the body becomes too overheated, or water or electrolytes too depleted, the sweat control mechanism of the body malfunctions and shuts down. The result is heat stroke (sunstroke). Heat exposure injuries are a threat in any hot environment, but especially in desert or tropical areas and in the boiler rooms of ships. Under normal conditions it is a preventable injury. Individual and command awareness of the causes of heat stress problems should help eliminate heat exposure injuries.
Excessive sweating may result in painful cramps in the muscles of the abdomen, legs, and arms. Heat cramps may also result from drinking ice water or other cold drinks either too quickly or in too large a quantity after exercise. Muscle cramps are often an early sign of approaching heat exhaustion.
To provide first aid treatment for heat cramps, move the victim to a cool place. Since heat cramps are caused by loss of salt and water, give the victim plenty of cool (not cold) water to drink, adding about one teaspoon of salt to a liter or quart of water. Apply manual pressure to the cramped muscle, or gently massage it to relieve the spasm. If there are indications of anything more serious, transport the victim immediately to a medical treatment facility.
Heat exhaustion (heat prostration or heat collapse) is the most common condition caused by working or exercising in hot environments. In heat exhaustion there is a serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart, and lungs. This causes the victim to experience weakness, dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, and nausea. The victim may faint, but he or she will probably regain