Figure 6-12.Periodontal periosteal elevator.
Figure 6-13.Periodontal knife.
to remove granulation, fibrous tissue, and
hard-to-remove subgingival calculus deposits.
PERIODONTAL SURGERY CHISELS,
HOES, AND FILES
Because of bone loss accompanied in some cases
of periodontal disease, it may be necessary for the
periodontist to recontour the bone during periodontal
surgery. In such cases, the dentist may use periodontal
surgery chisels, hoes, and files. They are also larger
and heavier than those used in scaling and root planing.
Electrosurgery equipment uses a high-frequency
electric current to cut tissue. The electrode attachment
used will depend on the extent of the tissue removal
required. One advantage of using the electrosurgery is
coagulation and the control of bleeding.
ROUTINE PERIODONTAL PROCEDURES
Treatment of periodontal disease and occlusal
trauma may include several nonsurgical procedures,
such as equilibration, periodontal scaling, scaling and
root planing, and root desensitization. Gingival
curettage, which is considered a periodontal surgery
procedure, is commonly performed in conjunction
with scaling and root planing.
Occlusal interferences and oral habits, such as
bruxism and clenching, can cause the mandible to shift
out of its normal position when the maxillary and
mandibular teeth occlude. This chronic shifting of the
mandible during oral functions is traumatic to the joint,
and may cause muscle spasms, and hypersensitivity
and hypermobility of teeth. The elimination of
occlusal interferences and establishment of favorable
occlusal forces on the teeth is called occlusal
equilibration. The two types (limited or complete) are
Limited Occlusal Adjustment
Limited occulusal adjustment involves reshaping
the occlusal or incisal surfaces of the teeth by grinding
to improve inter-arch tooth contact relationships. This
type of adjustment is limited to one or more selective
teeth being reshaped.
Complete Occlusal Adjustment
Complete occlusal adjustment involves reshaping
the occlusal and or incisal surfaces by grinding to
achieve correct contact during functional movement
(grinding side- to-side and sliding the jaw forward). A
complete adjustment involves all or nearly all of the