Gracey #1/2Facial root surfaces of incisors and cuspids.
Gracey #3/4Lingual surfaces of anterior teeth.
Gracey #5/6All surfaces of anterior teeth and some bicuspids.
Gracey #7/8 and #9/10Facial and lingual surfaces of posterior teeth.
Gracey #11/12Mesial surfaces of posterior teeth and for furcations and depressions.
Gracey #13/14Distal surfaces of posterior teeth.
Periodontal files are strong instruments used to crush large calculus deposits and to smooth the tooth surface at the cementoenamel junction when the dentist is root planing.
Use of the periodontal chisel scaler is extremely limited. It is used solely for the removal of heavy supragingival calculus deposits that bridge open interproximal spaces of anterior teeth.
Periodontal hoe scalers are usually limited to removal of large ledges of calculus located supragingivally and slightly subgingivally. For example, calculus that rings the tooth on the facial, lingual, and distal surfaces of teeth that have no adjacent posterior teeth can be removed with the hoe.
Special scalers made of plastic or nonmetallic material are designed for cleaning the abutments of dental implants. The special material enables optimum cleaning without damaging the abutment surface. Never use metal scalers and curettes, including some and or untrasonic tips, because they may damage the smooth surface of the implant.
Several versions of implant scales are available to permit access in all situations. We will discuss where on the tooth the implant scalers (fig. 6-11) are used.
Universal scaler - Can be used in most areas to clean the abutment surfaces and apical portion of the framework.
Figure 6-11. - Plastic or nonmetallic scaling instruments.
Lingual scaler - Designed for cleaning the lingual side of the abutment.
Posterior scaler - Designed to enable access to the posterior lingual abutment surfaces.
Buccal scaler - Cleans the buccal surface of the abutment.
To be an effective and efficient dental assistant, you must be familiar with the instruments the dentist may use during surgery. Some of the most commonly used periodontal surgery instruments are periosteal elevators, periodontal knives, periodontal surgery curettes and sickles, and periodontal surgery chisels, hoes, and files.
The periodontal periosteal elevator illustrated in figure 6-12 is very similar in shape to the prosthetic laboratory wax spatulas. It is designed with one end that is rounded and the other pointed for delicate tissue retraction.
Periodontal knives (fig. 6-13) may be double- or single-ended in paired sets. The knives have a slightly angled, crescent-shaped blade. Many different types of knives are designed to make initial incisions for gingivectomy and gingivoplasty procedures. Other knives are used to excise (complete the removal of) the interproximal tissue in gingivectomy and gingivoplasty procedures.
These instruments are larger and heavier curettes and sickles than those used in scalings and are often needed during periodontal surgery. They are designedContinue Reading