Gracey #1/2Facial root surfaces of incisors
Gracey #3/4Lingual surfaces of anterior teeth.
Gracey #5/6All surfaces of anterior teeth and
Gracey #7/8 and #9/10Facial and lingual
surfaces of posterior teeth.
Gracey #11/12Mesial surfaces of posterior
teeth and for furcations and depressions.
Gracey #13/14Distal surfaces of posterior
Periodontal files are strong instruments used to
crush large calculus deposits and to smooth the tooth
surface at the cementoenamel junction when the
dentist is root planing.
Use of the periodontal chisel scaler is extremely
limited. It is used solely for the removal of heavy
supragingival calculus deposits that bridge open
interproximal spaces of anterior teeth.
Periodontal hoe scalers are usually limited to
removal of large ledges of calculus located
supragingivally and slightly subgingivally. For
example, calculus that rings the tooth on the facial,
lingual, and distal surfaces of teeth that have no
adjacent posterior teeth can be removed with the hoe.
Figure 6-11.Plastic or nonmetallic scaling instruments.
Lingual scalerDesigned for cleaning the
lingual side of the abutment.
Posterior scalerDesigned to enable access to
the posterior lingual abutment surfaces.
Buccal scalerCleans the buccal surface of the
To be an effective and efficient dental assistant,
you must be familiar with the instruments the dentist
may use during surgery. Some of the most commonly
used periodontal surgery instruments are periosteal
elevators, periodontal knives, periodontal surgery
curettes and sickles, and periodontal surgery chisels,
hoes, and files.
The periodontal periosteal elevator illustrated in
figure 6-12 is very similar in shape to the prosthetic
laboratory wax spatulas. It is designed with one end
that is rounded and the other pointed for delicate tissue
Dental Implant Scaling Instruments
Special scalers made of plastic or nonmetallic
material are designed for cleaning the abutments of
dental implants. The special material enables optimum
cleaning without damaging the abutment surface.
Never use metal scalers and curettes, including some
and or untrasonic tips, because they may damage the
smooth surface of the implant.
Several versions of implant scales are available to
permit access in all situations. We will discuss where
on the tooth the implant scalers (fig. 6-11) are used.
Universal scalerCan be used in most areas to
clean the abutment surfaces and apical portion of
Periodontal knives (fig. 6-13) may be double- or
single-ended in paired sets. The knives have a slightly
angled, crescent-shaped blade. Many different types
of knives are designed to make initial incisions for
gingivectomy and gingivoplasty procedures. Other
knives are used to excise (complete the removal of) the
interproximal tissue in gingivectomy and
PERIODONTAL SURGERY CURETTES
These instruments are larger and heavier curettes
and sickles than those used in scalings and are often
needed during periodontal surgery. They are designed