Do not fire at hospital ships, medical personnel,
chaplains, vehicles (air or ground), buildings, tents, or
other facilities used for the care of wounded, sick,
shipwrecked, and disabled persons.
Do Not Hide Behind the Medical Services
The medical service emblems (Red Cross, Red
Crescent, and Red Shield of David) are symbols of
protection for the wounded, sick, and disabled. In
combat, the purpose of these emblems is to protect
those who have become casualties and those personnel
who are caring for them. It is a serious breach of the
rules of war to use these signs to protect or hide
military activities. Do not mark your position or
yourself with a medical service emblem unless you
have been designated to perform only medical duties.
Medical personnel or facilities will lose their
special status if they commit injurious acts to the
enemy. Furthermore, hospitals and ambulances lose
their special protection when using hospitals as an
observation post, as a shelter for able bodied
combatants, or as a storeroom for arms or ammunition
(except ammunition of the wounded until they are
transferred), and when using ambulances to fire upon
DEFENSE AGAINST CBR WARFARE
As members of the healthcare team, Dental
Technicians are trained in the recognition and
treatment of chemical, biological, and radiological
(CBR) hazards. The purpose of CBR warfare is to
produce casualties, disable, or kill the enemy. In the
event that an enemy uses any CBR warfare, U.S. forces
must be trained to survive. The enemys aim is to force
U.S. forces into protective gear, restrict our capability
to perform our mission, and contaminate our combat
systems. To survive, it is essential that all Navy
personnel have a good working knowledge of all
aspects of CBR defense. All personnel should be
familiar with self-protection and treatment
procedures. We will explain how to recognize CBR
agents and to treat casualties.
Chemical warfare (CW), or gas warfare, is the
deliberate use of a variety of chemical agents in
gaseous, solid, or liquid state. These agents are toxic
(poisonous) chemicals that can produce death, injury,
or irritating effects.
All service members must take every precaution
against becoming chemical casualties. Medical
personnel must apply the principles of first aid,
treatment, and decontamination to increase theirs and
their patients chances of survival.
This section of chemical warfare outlines the basic
recognition and treatment principles. For specific
detailed treatment, refer to Navy NAVMED P-5041,
Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and
Conventional Military Injuries.
Chemical agents attack the body and produce
specific damage depending upon the nature of the
agent used. The most common types of agents are
Blister agents (vesicants)
Incapacitating agents (psychochemical agents)
Blood agents (cyanogens)
Vomiting and tear agents (sternutators and
Nerve agents are among the deadliest of chemical
agents and may produce rapid symptoms.
include the G and V agents. Examples of G agents are
Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), and VX.
Nerve agents can be dispersed by artillery shell,
mortar shell, rocket, land mine, missile, aircraft spray,
and aircraft bomb.
Nerve agents are colorless to light brown liquids.
Most nerve agents are essentially odorless; however,
some have a faint fruity or paint odor.
amounts, aqueous solutions of nerve agents are
Protection Against Absorption of
Nerve agents may be absorbed through any body
surface. When dispersed as a spray or aerosol, droplets
can be absorbed through the skin, eyes, and respiratory
tract. When dispersed as a vapor, it is primarily