To Change a Mixed Number to anImproper FractionMultiply the whole number by the denom-inator of the fraction and add the numerator tothis product; write this sum over the denominator.E x a m p l e : Addition of FractionsIn order to add fractions, you must determinea common denominator (a number that is evenlydivisible by each of the denominators concerned).E x a m p l e 1.2.3.4.Multiply the denominators by each other.This gives you a common denominator.Divide each original denominator into thiscommon denominator and multiply thequotient by the old denominator. This givesyou new numerators.Reduce each fraction to lowest terms.Add the numerators only, place the sumover the common denominator, and reduceto lowest terms.T h e r e f o r e Subtraction of Fractions1. Establish a common denominator.2. Subtract one numerator from the other.3. Reduce to lowest terms.Example:Multiplication of Fractions1. Multiply the numerators to determine thenew numerator.2.3.Multiply the denominators to determine anew denominator.Write the new numerator over the newdenominator and reduce to lowest terms.E x a m p l e s : a . b. NOTE: If you have a mixed number to multi-ply, change to an improper fraction and proceedas above.Example:Division of Fractions1. Invert the divisor.2. Change the division sign to a multiplica-tion sign and proceed as in multiplication.3. Reduce to lowest terms.E x a m p l e : NOTE: If mixed numbers are involved,change to improper fractions and proceed asabove.ToE x a m p l e : Change a Fraction to a DecimalDivide the numerator by the denominator.Some of the results can be stated in their exactequivalents such as 1/2, 1/4, or 2/5; others willnot divide evenly and will be expressed as closeapproximates.Examples: PERCENTAGEPercentage means “parts per hundred” or theexpression of fractions with denominators of 100.Thus a 10 percent solution may be expressed as10%, 10/100. 0.10, or 10 parts per 100 parts.It is often necessary for the pharmacist to com-pound solutions of a desired percentage strength.8-7

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