ACTION AND USE. Primaquine phosphate is the drug of choice for the prevention or relapse of malaria caused by P. vivax, and P. ovale. Primaquine phosphate is contraindicated in G-6-PD deficient personnel as it may result in hemolytic anemia.
USUAL DOSE. Primaquine phosphate is most commonly used as a terminal prophylaxis, i.e., it is given for 14 days after leaving an endemic area.
ACTION AND USE. Fansidar is used in the curative treatment of strains of malaria that are resistant to chloroquine phosphate. It is also used as a prophylaxis in endemic areas.
USUAL DOSE. For the curative treatment, 2 or 3 tablets followed by two weeks of primaquine phosphate to prevent relapse. For the prophylactic treatment, one tablet weekly beginning two days prior to arrival in an endemic area and six weeks after leaving the area followed by a regimen of primaquine phosphate.
ACTION AND USE. Mebendazole is effective in treating infestations of hookworm, roundworm, pinworm, and whipworm.
USUAL DOSE. For pinworms, a single 100 mg tablet is generally sufficient to effect cure. For whipworms, roundworms, and hookworms, a 100 mg tablet morning and evening for three consecutive days.
ACTION AND USE. This is regarded as the drug of choice for pinworm and roundworm infections.
USUAL DOSE. A single dose of 1 ml (50 mg) per pound body weight. It maybe administered without regard to ingestion of food or time of day.
ACTION AND USE. Thiabendazole is a vermacide used to destroy pinworms, roundworms, threadworms, hookworms, and whipworms. It is not indicated as a prophylactic agent.
USUAL DOSE. The dosage is based on the patients weight. For persons over 150 pounds, 1.5 g two times daily for two days. For persons under 150 pounds, dosage is 10 mg per pound two times daily. The maximum daily dosage is 3.0 g.
ACTION AND USE. Pyrvinium pamoate is indicated in the treatment of pinworms. To avoid undue concern, the patient should be informed that the drug will stain a bright red and stools will be a bright red.
USUAL DOSE. Pyrvinium pamoate is administered in a single dose of 5 mg/kg body weight up to a maximum of 7 tablets of 50 mg each.
Laxatives are drugs that facilitate the passage and elimination of feces from the colon and rectum. They are indicated for the treatment of simple constipation and to clean the intestine of any irritant or toxic substances (catharsis). Laxatives may also be used to soften painfully hard stools and to lessen straining of certain cardiac patients when defecating. They are contraindicated in certain inflammatory conditions of the bowel, bowel obstruction, and abdominal pain of unknown origin, and should not be used in the presence of nausea and vomiting. Laxatives are classified as irritant, bulk, emollient, or stool softeners. Frequent or prolonged use of any laxative may result in dependence.
ACTION AND USE. Mineral oil is an emollient laxative used to lubricate the fecal mass. It is often used in combination with an irritant agent such as phenophthalein.
USUAL DOSE. 15 to 45 ml at bedtime.
ACTION AND USE. These are widely used in children. They promote peristalsis through local irritation of the mucous membrane of the colon.