CAUTION: High concentrations of nitrous ox-
ide may cause cyanosis and asphyxia.
ACTION AND USE. Halothane can be
used for inhalation anesthesia in every known
operative procedure in patients of all ages. Use
of halothane permits high oxygen concentration
and use of cautery. Virtually nontoxic, recovery
is rapid and remarkably free of excitement,
nausea, and vomiting. It is nonflammable and
nonexplosive. It is contraindicated in obstetrics
or in patients with hepatic dysfunction.
Ketamine Hydrochloride (Ketalar)
ACTION AND USE. Ketamine hydrochlo-
ride is a rapid general anesthetic agent for
procedures that do not require skeletal muscle
relaxation or as a preinduction agent. One signifi-
cant side effect of this agent is when the patient
begins to recover from the drug he or she may
experience psychological manifestations ranging
from pleasant dream-like states to hallucinations
to delirium accompanied by confusion or irra-
tional behavior. The effects of these manifesta-
tions may be minimized by keeping aural and
tactile stimuli to a minimum. It is contraindicated
in patients with hypertensive disease.
USUAL DOSE. No usual dose has been
determined; ketamine hydrochloride must be
titrated to individual patient response.
Fentanyl and Droperidol (Innovar)
ACTION AND USE. This is a combination
of a narcotic (fentanyl) and a tranquilizer
(droperidol). Because of the selfpotentiating com-
bination, it must be used with extreme caution in
patients with any respiratory problems.
These drugs produce loss of sensation to pain
in a specific area or locality of the body, without
loss of consciousness or mental capacity. The ma-
jority of these drugs are administered parenterally
Procaine Hydrochloride (Novocain)
ACTION AND USE. Administered only by
injection, it may be used for most types of local
anesthesia including spinal anesthesia. It is
available in various solutions for injection.
Lidocaine Hydrochloride (Xylocaine)
ACTION AND USE. This is the standard
to which all other local anesthetics are compared.
It may be combined with epinephrine for
vasoconstrictive effects and is used for all types
of local anesthesia. Lidocaine is also used in the
treatment of myocardial infarctions to prevent or
suppress preventricular contractions. CAUTION:
Total dosage injected in 24 hours should not ex-
ceed 0.05 g per patient when used with
epinephrine. It is available as an ointment, jelly,
solution for injection, solution for gargle, and
Dibucaine Hydrochloride (Nupercaine)
ACTION AND USE. Dibucaine hydrochlo-
ride is used as a topical anesthetic on mucous
membranes and is also administered parenterally.
It is available as an ointment for topical use or
as a solution for injection.
Proparacaine (Ophthetic, Ophthaine)
ACTION AND USE. This is a topical
ophthalmic anesthetic suited for almost every
ophthalmic procedure. It is fairly long lasting.
The autonomic nervous system, also called the
visceral or involuntary nervous system, controls
the autonomic functions of the body. Drugs that
affect the autonomic nervous system are highly
specialized and therefore are classified according
to their effect.
These drugs, also called cholinomimetics,
stimulate the structures controlled by the parasym-
pathetic nerves. They are either direct acting or
Neostigmine Methylsulfate (Prostigmin)
ACTION AND USE. Neostigmine methyl-
sulfate is indicated for the symptomatic control
of myasthenia gravis.