extensively in the treatment of embolism and in
the prevention of occlusions.
USUAL DOSE. As prescribed by a
Vitamins are essential substances for
maintenance of normal metabolic functions. They
are not synthesized in the human body in normally
adequate quantities; therefore, they must be pro-
vided from outside sources.
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin necessary
for visual adaptation to darkness. Deficiencies
rarely occur in well nourished individuals and an
excess of vitamin A can be toxic. Retinoic acid,
a degradation product of retinol, is useful as a
keratolytic in the treatment of acne and
Thiamine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B1)
Thiamine hydrochloride is necessary for car-
bohydrate metabolism. This vitamin is used in the
treatment of patients with appetite loss resulting
from dietary disturbances. The deficiency disease
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin functions in the body as a coen-
zyme necessary in tissue respiratory processes,
e.g., oxidation reduction reactions. Deficiency is
associated with cheilosis, glossitis, or visual distur-
bances or visual fatigue. It is most commonly used
with nicotinic acid (niacin) in the treatment of
Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6)
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a coenzyme in the
metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. It
is most often used during isoniazid (INH) therapy
to prevent the development of peripheral neuritis.
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12)
Cyanocobalamin is essential to growth, cell
reproduction, and hematopoiesis. Vitamin B12 is
used in the treatment of pernicious anemia and
treatment is continued indefinitely. Folic acid is
normally given as a supplemental therapy.
NOTE: ALL OF THE B VITAMINS ARE
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin
necessary for the prevention and cure of scurvy.
It is also believed that a deficiency in vitamin C
delays wound healing.
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin, is involved
in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus
metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets
in children and osteomalacia in adults.
The naturally occurring form is a fat-soluble
vitamin while many of the synthetic forms are
water-soluble. Vitamin K is involved in the for-
mation of prothrombin and other blood clotting
factors. Deficiency results in an increase in blood-
Generally speaking, anesthesia means
without feeling; consequently, we apply the
word to drugs that produce insensibility to pain.
The field today is a highly specialized one.
General Anesthesia and Anesthesia
Since general anesthetics are usually gas or
vapor and are administered by inhalation, ad-
ministering them remains a highly specialized field
and should never be undertaken by a hospital
corpsman without the supervision of a medical
officer. There may be times when you, as a
hospital corpsman, will be called upon to ad-
minister general anesthesia; therefore, it will be-
hoove you to understand its principles.
Nitrous Oxide (Laughing Gas)
ACTION AND USE. It is usually used with
an adequate amount of oxygen in general
anesthesia. Nitrous oxide may produce a condi-
tion during which the patient may laugh and
become quite talkative. It is commonly used in
dentistry or as a preinduction agent to other