edges are easily dulled, you must sharpen them after each use. Surgical chisels are much larger than enamel chisels used in restorative dentistry. The surgical mallet (fig. 5-15) is used along with a selected chisel to split teeth or reduce alveolar bone.
Rongeur forceps (fig. 5-16) are used to trim projecting, uneven, or overhanging bone (alveolectomy), usually after multiple extractions and before tissue suturing. It has a steel spring spreader, which opens the beaks when pressure is released from the handles.
Although most of the bony projections are removed with the rongeur forceps, some rough edges usually remain. The bone file (fig. 5-17) may be used to further shape and smooth the alveolar bone. They are double-ended instruments, with both large and small working ends.
Figure 5-15. - Surgical chisels and mallet.
Figure 5-16. - Rongeur forceps.
Figure 5-17. - Bone file.
Three types of surgical elevators are used in oral surgery: the periosteal, root, and malar. Root picks are classified as root elevators and will also be discussed.
During surgery the dentist often needs to separate a bone or tooth from the fibrous membrane, called the periosteum that covers it. This is done with a periosteal elevator. The dentist may also use it to gain access to retained roots and surrounding bone. Two periosteal elevators are the Molt #9 and Seldin #23 shown in figure 5-18. The Molt #9 is used exclusively as a periosteal elevator. The Seldin #23, because of its wide working ends, is also used as a retractor.
Root elevators come in many sizes and shapes. At least one (and sometimes more) is used in every tooth extraction. Which elevator or elevators that are used will depend upon the desire of the dentist. A root elevator has three functions:
To loosen the teeth in their sockets.
To remove parts of teeth (broken root tips or retained roots).
To remove a complete tooth.
Figure 5-18. - Periosteal elevators.Continue Reading