This card is two-sided (figs. 13-14A and 13-14B) and contains blocks for recording the casualty's personal data, the initial diagnosis, nature of the casualty, date and time of the injury, emergency medical treatment rendered, casualty disposition, and the signature of the aid person rendering the initial treatment. Make every effort to complete the card as accurately as possible. This information will be extremely helpful to the medical staff after the casualty has been transported for further medical treatment.
Burns, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke are the injuries most commonly caused by exposure to extreme heat. Although burns caused by contact with acids, alkalies, and other chemicals are not true heat burns, they are discussed here.
BURNS. - To provide the proper emergency treatment for a burn, you must determine the type of burn, the depth of the burn, and how much of the casualty's body is burned.
Three types of burns are covered here: thermal, chemical, and electrical. A thermal burn is caused by exposure to heat from sources such as fire, hot objects, hot gases, hot liquids, or explosions. A chemical burn occurs when a person comes in contact with a caustic chemical. An electrical burn occurs when a person comes in contact with a live wire or is struck by lightning. It is important to distinguish between these types of burns because the treatment is different for each.
You can visually examine a burn to determine how deep it is. Burns are classified according to their depth as first degree, second degree, and third degree as shown in figure 13-15.
First-degree burns are the mildest, producing a redness of the skin's outer layer, increased warmth, tenderness, and mild pain.
Second-degree burns extend through the skin's outer layer to involve the deeper layers. The skin reddens and blisters, and the casualty experiences severe pain.
Third-degree burns destroy the skin and may destroy underlying tissue and bone. The casualty may not experience severe pain, because all the nerve endings in the burn area may have been destroyed. The color of the third-degree burn may vary from white and lifeless to black.
To determine how much of a casualty's body is burned, use the rules of nine (fig. 13-16). According to this method, each of the following areas of the body represent 9 percent of the body's surface, with the genital area representing 1 percent.
Figure 13-15. - First, second, and third degree burns.Continue Reading