The drug classifications can be further divided into two groups: noncontrolled and controlled drugs.
Noncontrolled drugs are referred to as non- prescription, over the counter drugs (OTC), (i.e., aspirin, and mild analgesics). These drugs are effective for relieving most mild dental pain.
All prescription drugs are to be treated with respect; certain groups considered to have a potential for abuse, such as narcotics, stimulants, and sedatives require special handling and security measures. Controlled substances are those drugs listed in the Controlled Substance Act of 1970 that is administered by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the Justice Department. Controlled drugs are categorized into five schedules. MANMED, chapter 21, describes the schedules. Ethyl alcohol (used to fuel laboratory torches), although not included in any schedules of the Controlled Substances Act, must be received and accounted for, and dispensed in the same manner as schedule II substances described in MANMED, chapter 21.
The term drug nomenclature implies that there are several names that can be used to identify a drug. Normally drugs have three names: chemical, generic, and trade (brand).
Chemical name - Describes the chemical and molecular structure. The chemical name of a common dental local anesthetic called acetamide is 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-monohydro chloride (C14 H22 N2 O.HCL.H 2 O).
Generic name - Describes the common name of the drug. The above example has the generic name of lidocaine hydrochloride.
Trade name - This name is given by the manufacturer, and is also called the brand name.
The drugs listed here are some of those commonly used in dentistry and are grouped according to pharmacological classes. Only a brief summary is possible here and the Dental Technician who desires more complete study of each drug should refer to reference books in the command library.
Acids are very caustic and present a sour taste. Extreme care must be taken when handling acidic substances. Follow all safety precautions on Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for each product. A common acid used in dentistry is phosphoric acid, and comes in the forms of solutions or gels. It can be used in etching procedures with composite restorations, sealants, and orthodontic brackets.
Emollients are bland or fatty substances that may be applied to the skin to make it more pliable and soft, and can also serve as a lubricant in dental procedures.
Cocoa butter is an excel lent emollient with a pleasant odor. It is ideal for the treatment of chapped or cracked lips, and can also be used as a lubricant in rubber dam procedures.
Petrolatum is highly occlusive and a good emollient. It can be used as a lubricant when handling sticky dental materials, and has several uses in the prosthetic laboratory.
These drugs and chemicals are primarily intended for the prevention of infections by destroying microorganisms or preventing their growth. The differences among them are based primarily on the degree of activity and how they are used. Complete details on their uses is covered in chapter 10, "Sterilization and Disinfection."
Antibiotics are chemical compounds that stop the growth of or destroy different types of bacteria and other micro-organisms. They are used in dentistry to treat oral infections. They are also prescribed as aContinue Reading