Do not fire at hospital ships, medical personnel, chaplains, vehicles (air or ground), buildings, tents, or other facilities used for the care of wounded, sick, shipwrecked, and disabled persons.
Symbols The medical service emblems (Red Cross, Red Crescent, and Red Shield of David) are symbols of protection for the wounded, sick, and disabled. In combat, the purpose of these emblems is to protect those who have become casualties and those personnel who are caring for them. It is a serious breach of the rules of war to use these signs to protect or hide military activities. Do not mark your position or yourself with a medical service emblem unless you have been designated to perform only medical duties.
Medical personnel or facilities will lose their special status if they commit injurious acts to the enemy. Furthermore, hospitals and ambulances lose their special protection when using hospitals as an observation post, as a shelter for able bodied combatants, or as a storeroom for arms or ammunition (except ammunition of the wounded until they are transferred), and when using ambulances to fire upon the enemy.
As members of the healthcare team, Dental Technicians are trained in the recognition and treatment of chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) hazards. The purpose of CBR warfare is to produce casualties, disable, or kill the enemy. In the event that an enemy uses any CBR warfare, U.S. forces must be trained to survive. The enemy's aim is to force U.S. forces into protective gear, restrict our capability to perform our mission, and contaminate our combat systems. To survive, it is essential that all Navy personnel have a good working knowledge of all aspects of CBR defense. All personnel should be familiar with self-protection and treatment procedures. We will explain how to recognize CBR agents and to treat casualties.
Chemical warfare (CW), or gas warfare, is the deliberate use of a variety of chemical agents in gaseous, solid, or liquid state. These agents are toxic (poisonous) chemicals that can produce death, injury, or irritating effects.
All service members must take every precaution against becoming chemical casualties. Medical personnel must apply the principles of first aid, treatment, and decontamination to increase theirs and their patients chances of survival.
This section of chemical warfare outlines the basic recognition and treatment principles. For specific detailed treatment, refer to Navy NAVMED P-5041, Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Injuries. Chemical agents attack the body and produce specific damage depending upon the nature of the agent used. The most common types of agents are listed below:
Blister agents (vesicants)
Incapacitating agents (psychochemical agents)
Blood agents (cyanogens)
Choking agents Vomiting and tear agents (sternutators and lacrimators, respectively)
Nerve agents are among the deadliest of chemical agents and may produce rapid symptoms. They include the G and V agents. Examples of G agents are Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), and VX. Nerve agents can be dispersed by artillery shell, mortar shell, rocket, land mine, missile, aircraft spray, and aircraft bomb.
Nerve agents are colorless to light brown liquids. Most nerve agents are essentially odorless; however, some have a faint fruity or paint odor. In toxic amounts, aqueous solutions of nerve agents are tasteless.
Nerve agents may be absorbed through any body surface. When dispersed as a spray or aerosol, droplets can be absorbed through the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. When dispersed as a vapor, it is primarilyContinue Reading