SYMPTOMSIt is characterized by a severe throbbing pain that radiates to the forehead and temple, lacrimation, photophobia, blurring of vision, redness, and enlarged blood vessels around the cornea.
TREATMENTGeneral measures consist of bed rest with subdued light, local corticosteroid therapy, and warm compresses. Transfer the patient as soon as possible to an ophthalmologist.
There is usually partial or complete separation of the retina from its pigment layer.
SYMPTOMSThe patient may notice flashes of light or stars, followed by sensation of a curtain moving over the eyes.
TREATMENTImmobilize in bed and instill mydriatics to dilate the pupils. Evacuate the patient as soon as possible to an ophthalmologist;.
A sensation (accentuated in bright light) of seeing spots is a common complaint in myopic and elderly patients.
SYMPTOMSThe spots are normally seen when looking at the sky and cannot be focused upon. Brown or red spots that are reasonably stable often indicate minute hemorrhage. A large, slow moving spot is normally an intraocular foreign body.
TREATMENTRefer for routine eye examination.
Contact Dermatitis This is an acute or chronic inflammation produced by substances coming into contact with the skin. Some of the more common skin sensitizing agents are poison ivy, poison oak, fruits, vegetables, chemicals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, fabrics, and detergents.
SYMPTOMSThe most common sites are the face, neck, hands, feet, eyelids, and genitals, The scalp is not usually affected; however, any area of the body may be affected. In many instances, the site of the dermatosis is a clue as to the agent involved. The patients major complaints will normally be itching, scaling, rash, and pain.
TREATMENTNo treatment can be effective until the causative agent is determined and eliminated. In acute stages, bland compresses and a drying corticosteroid loction may be indicated. If the dermatitis is extremely uncomfortable or disabling, a short course of systemic corticosteroid therapy may be effective. Antihistamines are of little or no value in contact dermatitis. If crusting and scaling occur, substitute bland greases and creams for compresses and drying agents.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, itching, superficial inflammation of the skin, normally associated with a family history of allergic disorders. Usually no single causative agent can be located. Patients with atopic dermatitis tend to be tense and restless; however, the relationship between the dermatitis and the psychic state is unknown.
SYMPTOMSThe skin is dry and the primary complaint is itching. There are seldom any vesicles, although scratching and rubbing may produce excoriation. The face, neck, antecubital and popliteal spaces, hands, and wrist areas are most often involved. Scratching by the patient may produce a secondary infection with oozing and crusting. Many times the condition is persistent and tends to be localized in one specific area.
TREATMENTTopical corticosteroids are the most effective agents and should be applied in small amounts and rubbed in thoroughly. If the episode is severe, oral corticosteroids are indicated for a short period. Advise the patient to keep the skin as free as possible from perspiration and to avoid scratching. The skin should be kept moist by using oils or lotions. Antihistamines often prove very effective in relieving itching. Advise the patient to avoid wool clothing or 100 percent synthetic fibers.
This is an acute or chronic papulosquamous skin disease of unknown etiology. In approximately one third of all cases, the cause is