extensively in the treatment of embolism and in the prevention of occlusions.
USUAL DOSE. As prescribed by a physician.
Vitamins are essential substances for maintenance of normal metabolic functions. They are not synthesized in the human body in normally adequate quantities; therefore, they must be provided from outside sources.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin necessary for visual adaptation to darkness. Deficiencies rarely occur in well nourished individuals and an excess of vitamin A can be toxic. Retinoic acid, a degradation product of retinol, is useful as a keratolytic in the treatment of acne and pseudofolliculitis barbae.
Thiamine hydrochloride is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism. This vitamin is used in the treatment of patients with appetite loss resulting from dietary disturbances. The deficiency disease is beriberi.
Riboflavin functions in the body as a coenzyme necessary in tissue respiratory processes, e.g., oxidation reduction reactions. Deficiency is associated with cheilosis, glossitis, or visual disturbances or visual fatigue. It is most commonly used with nicotinic acid (niacin) in the treatment of pellagra.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a coenzyme in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. It is most often used during isoniazid (INH) therapy to prevent the development of peripheral neuritis.
Cyanocobalamin is essential to growth, cell reproduction, and hematopoiesis. Vitamin B12 is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia and treatment is continued indefinitely. Folic acid is normally given as a supplemental therapy. NOTE: ALL OF THE B VITAMINS ARE WATER-SOLUBLE.
Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for the prevention and cure of scurvy. It is also believed that a deficiency in vitamin C delays wound healing.
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin, is involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
The naturally occurring form is a fat-soluble vitamin while many of the synthetic forms are water-soluble. Vitamin K is involved in the formation of prothrombin and other blood clotting factors. Deficiency results in an increase in blood-clotting time.
Generally speaking, anesthesia means without feeling; consequently, we apply the word to drugs that produce insensibility to pain. The field today is a highly specialized one.
General Anesthesia and Anesthesia Induction Agents
Since general anesthetics are usually gas or vapor and are administered by inhalation, administering them remains a highly specialized field and should never be undertaken by a hospital corpsman without the supervision of a medical officer. There may be times when you, as a hospital corpsman, will be called upon to administer general anesthesia; therefore, it will behoove you to understand its principles.
ACTION AND USE. It is usually used with an adequate amount of oxygen in general anesthesia. Nitrous oxide may produce a condition during which the patient may laugh and become quite talkative. It is commonly used in dentistry or as a preinduction agent to other general anesthetics.