are green leafy vegetables, liver, soybean, and
other vegetable products.
Water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin C and the
B-complex vitamins, are not stored in the body to any
great extent. Rather, they are used as necessary by the
body, and any amounts that remain are excreted in the
urine. As a result, these vitamins must be replenished
daily to ensure optimum health.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is necessary for
normal growth and cell activity and is important
for maintaining blood vessel strength. It helps
the body resist upper respiratory infections and
is necessary for the proper development of teeth
and gums. Wounds and burns require vitamin C
for healing. A deficiency of ascorbic acid causes
an individual to bruise easily.
deficiency leads to a condition known as scurvy.
Good sources include citrus fruits, raw leafy
vegetables, and tomatoes.
Vitamin B (Complex) includes more than 12
separate B vitamins. Some of the more common
B vitamins are
Function in the Body
Seafood, water, and plant life in nongoiterous
regions, and iodized salt
Assists in normal functioning of
the thyroid gland.
Table salt, seafood, animal products, and foods
processed with sodium
Regulates osmotic pressure, pH
balance, and heartbeat.
Avocados, bananas, oranges, potatoes, tomatoes,
nuts, meat, coffee, tea, milk, and molasses
Regulates osmotic pressure and
pH balance. A constituent of all
Nuts, whole-grain cereals, legumes, and
Assists in maintaining mineral
Milk, yogurt, cheese, some green vegetables,
molasses, sardines, and salmon
Assists in blood coagulation;
regulates heartbeat, aids in
regulating mineral metabolism
and muscle and nerve response. A
constituent of bones and teeth.
Milk, yogurt, poultry, fish, meats, cheese, nuts,
cereals, and legumes
Aids in metabolizing organic
foodstuffs and maintains pH
balance. A constituent of bones
Liver, egg yolks, oyster, legumes, whole or
fortified grains, dark and green vegetables, and
Helps carry oxygen throughout the
body. A constituent of hemoglo-
bin, blood, and tissue.
Table salt, seafoods, and animal products
Regulates osmotic pressure.
constituent of gastric acid.
Promotes hair and nail formation
and growth. A constituent of all
Liver, kidney, nuts, dried legumes, some shellfish,
Aids in the use of iron in hemoglo-
Meat, liver, eggs, seafood (especially oysters),
milk, and whole-grain products
Regulates growth, taste acuity,
and appetite. A constituent of
Table 91.Mineral Elements in Nutrition