In the second phase, remove those casualties who
are trapped in more difficult circumstances but who
can be rescued by use of the equipment at hand and in a
minimum amount of time.
In the third phase, remove casualties where
extrication is extremely difficult and time consuming.
This type of rescue may involve cutting through decks,
breaching bulkheads, removing large amounts of
debris, or cutting through an expanse of metal. An
example would be rescuing a worker from beneath a
large, heavy piece of machinery.
The last phase is the removal of dead bodies.
Stages of Extrication
The first stage of extrication within each of the
rescue phases outlined above is gaining access to the
victim. Much will depend on the location of the
accident, damage within the accident site, and the
position of the victim. The means of gaining access
must also take into account the possibility of causing
further injury to the victim since force may be needed.
Further injury must be minimized.
The second stage involves giving lifesaving
emergency care. If necessary, establish and maintain
an open airway, start artificial respiration, and control
The third stage is disentanglement. The careful
removal of debris and other impediments from the victim
will prevent further injury to both the victim and the
The fourth stage is preparing the victim for
removal, with special emphasis on the protection of
The final stage, removing the victim from the
trapped area and transporting to an ambulance or
sickbay, may be as simple as helping the victim walk
out of the area or as difficult as a blanket dragged out of
a burning space.
Special Rescue Situations
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize the
procedural and precautionary steps that must
be taken in various rescue situations.
The procedures you follow in an emergency
situation will be determined by the nature of the
disaster or emergency you encounter. Some of the
more common rescue situations and the appropriate
procedures for each are outlined below.
RESCUE FROM FIRE.If you must go to the
aid of a person whose clothing is on fire, try to smother
the flames by wrapping the victim in a coat, blanket, or
rug. Leave the head UNCOVERED. If you have no
material with which to smother the fire, roll the victim
overSLOWLYand beat out the flames with your
hands. Beat out the flames around the head and
shoulders, then work downward toward the feet. If the
victim tries to run, throw him down. Remember that
the victim MUST lie down while you are trying to
extinguish the fire. Running will cause the clothing to
burn rapidly. Sitting or standing may cause the victim
to be killed instantly by inhaling flames or hot air.
CAUTION: Inhaling flames or hot air can kill
YOU, too. Do not get your face directly over the
flames. Turn your face away from the flame when
If your own clothing catches fire, roll yourself up
in a blanket, coat, or rug.
KEEP YOUR HEAD
UNCOVERED. If material to smother the fire is not
available, lie down, roll over slowly, and beat at the
flames with your hands.
If you are trying to escape from an upper floor of a
burning building, be very cautious about opening
doors into hallways or stairways. Always feel a door
before you open it. If the door feels hot, do not open it
if there is any other possible way out. Remember, also,
that opening doors or windows will create a draft and
make the fire worse. So do not open any door or
window until you are actually ready to get out.
If you are faced with the problem of removing an
injured person from an upper story of a burning
building, you may be able to improvise a lifeline by
tying sheets, blankets, curtains, or other materials
together. Use square knots to connect the materials to
each other. Secure one end of the line around some
heavy object inside the building, and fasten the other
end around the casualty under the arms. You can lower
the victim to safety and then let yourself down the line.
Do not jump from an upper floor of a burning building
except as a last resort.
It is often said that the best air in a burning room
or compartment is near the floor, but this is true only to
a limited extent. There is less smoke and flame down
low, near the floor, and the air may be cooler. But it is
also true that carbon monoxide and other deadly gases
are just as likely to be present near the floor as near the