Do not use direct pressure to control hemorrhage
if the skull is depressed or obviously fractured
Wounds of the face are treated, in general, like
other fresh wounds. However, in all facial injuries
make sure neither the tongue nor injured soft tissue
blocks the airway, causing breathing obstruction.
Keep the nose and throat clear of any obstructing
materials, and position the victim so that blood will
drain out of the mouth and nose.
Facial wounds that involve the eyelids or the
soft tissue around the eye must be handled carefully
to avoid further damage. If the injury does not
involve the eyeball, apply a sterile compress and
hold it in place with a firm bandage. If the eyeball
appears to be injured, use a loose bandage.
(Remember that you must NEVER attempt to
remove any object that is embedded in the eyeball
or that has penetrated it; just apply a dry, sterile
compress to cover both eyes, and hold the compress
in place with a loose bandage).
Any person who has suffered a facial wound that
involves the eye, the eyelids, or the tissues around the
eye must receive medical attention as soon as possible.
Be sure to keep the victim lying down. Use a stretcher
Since chest injuries may cause severe breathing
and bleeding problems, all chest injuries must be
considered as serious conditions. Any victim showing
signs of difficulty in breathing without signs of airway
obstruction must be inspected for chest injuries. The
most serious chest injury that requires immediate first
aid treatment is the sucking chest wound. This is a
penetrating injury to the chest that produces a hole in
the chest cavity. The chest hole causes the lung to
collapse, preventing normal breathing functions. This
is an extremely serious condition that will result in
death if not treated quickly.
Victims with open chest wounds gasp for breath,
have difficulty breathing out, and may have a bluish
skin color to their face. Frothy-looking blood may
bubble from the wound during breathing.
The proper treatment for a sucking chest wound is
1. Immediately seal the wound with a hand or any
airtight material available (e.g., ID card). The
material must be large enough so that it cannot
be sucked into the wound when the victim
2. Firmly tape the material in place with strips of
adhesive tape and secure it with a pressure
dressing. It is important that the dressing is
airtight. If it is not, it will not relieve the victims
breathing problems. The object of the dressing
is to keep air from going in through the wound.
NOTE: If the victims condition
suddenly deteriorates when you apply
the seal, remove it immediately.
3. Give the victim oxygen if it is available and you
know how to use it.
4. Place the victim in a Fowlers or semi-Fowlers
position. This makes breathing a little easier.
During combat, lay the victim on a stretcher on
the affected side.
5. Watch the victim closely for signs of shock, and
6. Do not give victims with chest injuries anything
7. Transport the victim to a medical treatment
A deep wound in the abdomen is likely to
constitute a major emergency since there are many
vital organs in this area. Abdominal wounds usually
cause intense pain, nausea and vomiting, spasm of the
abdominal muscles, and severe shock. Immediate
surgical treatment is almost always required;
therefore, the victim must receive medical attention at
once, or the chances of survival will be poor. Give only
the most essential first aid treatment, and concentrate
your efforts on getting the victim to a medical
treatment facility. The following first aid procedures
may be of help to a person suffering from an abdominal
Keep the victim in a supine position. If the
intestine is protruding or exposed, the victim
may be more comfortable with the knees drawn
up. Place a coat, pillow, or some other bulky
cloth material under the knees to help maintain
this position. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO PUSH
THE INTESTINES BACK IN OR TO
MANIPULATE THEM IN ANY WAY!