Clostridium tetani, which has been treated with
It is a brownish yellow or slightly
turbid liquid, usually having the distinctive odor of
Alum Precipitated Diphtheria and Tetanus
Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccines Combined
(DPT). This is a markedly turbid, whitish liquid. It
is nearly odorless or may have a slight odor of the
preservative. It is a sterile suspension of the precipitate
obtained by treating the mixture of diphtheria toxoid,
tetanus toxoid, and pertussis vaccine with alum and
combining in such proportions as to ensure an
immunizing dose of each in the total dosage as listed on
Cholera Vaccine.Cholera vaccine is a
suspension of killed cholera, Vibrio comma, in a
suitable diluent, usually normal saline. The vaccine
presents a turbid appearance, and there may be a slight
odor due to the preservative. On storage, autolysis
may occur so that the vaccine may become almost as
clear as water.
Poliovirus Vaccine.There are two kinds of
polio vaccine: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV),
which is the shot recommended in the United States
today, and a live, oral polio vaccine (OPV), which
consists of drops that are swallowed. Until recently,
OPV was recommended for most children in the
United States. OPV helped us rid the country of polio,
and it is still used in many parts of the world.
Both vaccines give immunity to polio, but OPV is
better at keeping the disease from spreading to other
people. However, for a few people (about one in 2.4
million), OPV actually causes polio. Since the risk of
getting polio in the United States is now extremely low,
experts believe that using oral polio vaccine is no longer
worth the slight risk, except in limited circumstances.
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) must be
stored between 2BC and 8BC (24BF and 46BF). The
vaccine is clear and colorless, and it should be
administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
ORAL POLIOVIRUS VACCINE MUST
NEVER BE ADMINISTERED PARENTERALLY.
To maintain potency, OPV must be stored in the freezer
compartment of the refrigerator. It should be noted that
certain forms of this vaccine will remain fluid at
temperatures above -14BC. If frozen, after thawing,
agitate the vaccine to ensure homogeneity of its
contents before use. Once the temperature rises above
0BC, the vaccine MUST BE USED WITHIN 7 DAYS.
During this period, it must be stored below 10BC.
Yellow Fever Vaccine.This vaccine is a dull,
light orange, flaky or crust-like desiccated mass that
requires rehydration immediateley before use. It must
be stored at or below 0BC until rehydration is effected
with sterile sodium chloride injection USP.
Plague Vaccine.The vaccine for plague is a
sterile suspension of killed plague bacilli in an isotonic
solution. The strain of bacilli used has been selected for
its high antigenic efficiency. The vaccine is a turbid,
whitish liquid with little or no odor. The presence of any
precipitate is reason to suspect contamination.
Influenza Virus Vaccine.The influenza virus
vaccine is prepared from the allantoic fluid of
incubated fertile hen eggs. It is a slightly hazy fluid,
the result of minute amounts of egg protein. Its color
varies from gray to very faint red, depending upon the
method of manufacture.
The duration of immunity is probably no longer
than a few months, which necessitates repeating the
inoculation before the expected seasonal occurrence.
Do not inoculate individuals who are known to be
sensitive to eggs or egg products, or personnel
suffering from upper respiratory infections.
Dried Smallpox Vaccine.This vaccine is
prepared directly from calf lymph, purified,
concentrated, stabilized, and dried by lyophilization.
Dried smallpox vaccine is much more stable than the
conventional liquid. When stored at or below 25EC, it
retains its full potency for 18 months.
reconstituted and stored below 4EC (preferably 0EC),
it retains its full potency for 3 months.
Smallpox is no longer considered to be a threat to
world health, and immunizations against it are no
longer required. However, a general knowledge of the
disease and its prevention is important.
Anthrax Vaccine.The anthrax vaccine for
humans licensed for use in the United States is a
cell-free filtrate vaccine (using dead as opposed to live
bacteria). Inspect the vaccine visually for particulate
matter and discoloration before administration.
Anthrax vaccine should be stored between 2EC and
8EC (refrigerator temperature); it must not be frozen.
Do not use the vaccine if the expiration date listed on
the package has expired.
The vaccine should be administered only to
healthy men and women from 18 to 65 years of age. It
should NOT be administered to pregnant women.