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The normal values for hemoglobin determinations are as follows: Methods for hemoglobin determination are many and varied. The most widely used automated method is the cyanmethemoglobin method. To perform this method, blood is mixed with Drabkin’s solution, a solution that contains ferricyanide and cyanide. The ferricyanide oxidizes the iron in the hemoglobin, thereby changing hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Methemoglobin then unites with the cyanide to form cyanmethemoglobin. Cyanmethemoglobin produces a color which is measured in a colorimeter, spectrophotometer, or automated instrument. The color relates to the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. Manual methods for determining blood hemoglobin include the Haden-Hausse and Sahli-Hellige methods. In both methods, blood is mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid. This process hemolyzes the red cells, disrupting the integrity of the red cells’ membrane and causing the release of hemoglobin, which, in turn, is converted to a brownish-colored solution of acid hematin. The acid hematin solution is then compared with a color standard. HEMATOCRIT (PACKED CELL VOLUME) DETERMINATION The hematocrit or packed cell volume (PCV) determines the percentage of red blood cells (RBCs) in whole blood. The normal hematocrit value for men is 42% to 52%; for women, 37% to 47%; and for newborns, 53% to 65%. When hematocrit determinations are below normal, medical conditions such as anemia and leukemia may be present. Above-normal hematocrit determinations indicate medical conditions like dehydration, such as occur in severe burn cases. Currently, automated hematology analyzers supply most hematocrits. However, when hematology analyzers are not available, hematocrit determinations can be manually performed by the microhematocrit method or macrohematocrit method. Both methods call for the blood to be centrifuged, and the percentage of packed red cells is found by calculation. The microhematocrit method is the most accurate manual method of determining blood volume and should be used whenever feasible. Material requirements and the step-by-step procedures for performing the microhematocrit method will be covered in the following sections. Materials Required for Microhematocrit Procedure To perform a hematocrit using the micro- hematocrit method, the following materials are required.  Capillary tubes, plain or heparinized  Modeling clay sealant  Microhematocrit centrifuge  Microhematocrit reader Microhematocrit Procedure To perform the microhematocrit method, you should follow the steps listed below: 1. Fill the capillary tube two-thirds to three-quarters full with well-mixed, oxalated venous blood or fingertip blood. (For fingertip blood use heparinized tubes, and invert several times to mix.) 2. Seal one end of the tube with clay. 3. Place the filled tube in the microhematocrit centrifuge, with the plugged end away from the center of the centrifuge. 4. Centrifuge at a preset speed of 10,000 to 12,000 rpm for 5 minutes. If the hematocrit exceeds 50 percent, centrifuge for an additional 3 minutes. 5. Place the tube in the microhematocrit reader. Read the hematocrit by following the manufacturer ’s instructions on the microhematocrit reading device. TOTAL WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT The total white cell (leukocyte) count determines the number of white cells per cubic millimeter of blood. A great deal of information can be derived from white cell studies. The white blood cell count (WBC) and the differential count are common laboratory tests, and they are almost a necessity in determining the nature and severity of systemic infections. Normal WBC values in adults range from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per cubic millimeter; in children the range is from 5,000 to 15,000 cells per cubic millimeter; and in 7-16 Grams per 100 ml blood Percent Woman............................12.5 to 15.................83 to 110 Men....................................14 to 17..................97 to 124 Newborn infants................17 to 23..................97 to 138


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