Figure 4-1.Small and large spoon excavators.
Figure 4-2.Wedelstaedt and biangle chisels.
at a 45- to 90-degree angle from the shank. These
instruments have different lengths and widths of
blades. Hatchets are used on the wall of the cavity
preparation to cleave enamel and cut dentin so there
will be a sharp cavity outline.
Dental hoes (fig. 4-4) look like a miniature garden
hoe. They are used with a pulling motion to smooth and
shape the floor and sides of cavity preparations. Hoe
blades are set at a 45- to 90-degree angle from their
Gingival Margin Trimmers (GMTs)
The gingival margin trimmers (GMTs) (fig. 4-5)
are modified hatchets that have working ends with
opposite curvatures and bevels. As the name implies,
GMTs are used to trim, smooth, and shape the gingival
floor of a cavity preparation. GMTs are available in
double-ended styles and are used in pairs, such as the
#26 and #27. This is because the working ends of the
even-numbered instruments are designed for use on
the distal surfaces, and the odd numbered are used on
the mesial surfaces.
The instruments discussed in this section are used
when the dentist elects to use an amalgam or a
temporary dental material to restore a tooth.