This is a synthetic analgesic similar to morphine.
In dentistry it is used for moderate to severe pain and as
a preoperative medication.
These drugs produce vasodilation by relaxing and
enlarging the diameter of the blood vessels and smooth
muscle of the arteries, thereby lowering the blood
Amy1 nitrite is primarily used in casualty care to
treat blood agents. This will be discussed in chapter
13. Other uses are for urological conditions.
Nitroglycerin is indicated for the treatment and
management of acute and chronic angina pectoris.
Administration of this drug will be discussed in Dental
Technician, Volume 2, NAVEDTRA 12.573, chapter 9.
Control of anxiety and pain associated with dental
care can be accomplished by administering local
anesthesia and sedation. The most commonly used gas
in dentistry is nitrous oxide sedation. It may produce a
condition where the patient may laugh and become
quite talkative. Nitrous oxide is supplied in blue steel
tanks. Inhalation sedation with a mixture of 40%
nitrous oxide and 60% oxygen (N20-02), delivered
through a gas machine produces a conscious sedation
that is a safe and effective means to manage the
behavior, anxiety, and pain of many dental patients
before and during a dental procedure. The advantages
of N2O-O2 sedation are:
Vacoconstrictors are the opposite of vasodilators;
these drugs produce constriction of the blood vessels
with consequent rise in blood pressure. In dentistry,
epinephrine is used in some dental anesthetics, rarely
in gingival retraction cord processes, to help control
diffuse bleeding, and can be used to treat severe
allergic reactions, such as anaphylactic shock. In local
anesthetics, small amounts of epinephrine are added in
dental carpules, with ratios ranging from: 1:50,000,
1:100,000, or 1:200,000 parts of epinephrine to
Rapid onset of action.
Good control of the depth of the sedation.
Rapid and complete recovery.
Guidance to dental treatment facilities for the
administration of nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O-O2)
inhalation conscious sedation for dental outpatient
services can be found in BUMEDINST 6710.68.
Hemostatics are any agents, mechanical or
chemical, that arrest bleeding. They are used to control
hemorrhage from minute vessels or tissues by stopping
bleeding or by forming of a clot. Examples of
mechanical and chemical agents will be discussed in
Dental Technician, Volume 2, NAVEDTRA 12573,
chapter 5, Oral Surgery Assistance.
Most dental procedures require cutting or painful
manipulation of living tissue.
To make these
procedures comfortable for the patient, the dental
officer will inject local anesthetic agents for pain
Local anesthetics temporarily prevent the
conduction of sensory impulses such as pain, touch,
and thermal change from a body part along nerve
pathways to the brain. The dental officer can select
regions of the mouth he would like to lose sensation to
complete the dental procedure. About 15 different
local anesthetics are available for dental use. These
anesthetic solutions can be chemically classified into
two different categories: amides and esters.
This group of drugs delays or prevents blood
AmidesAn organic compound that comes
coagulation. A common anticoagulant used in dental
from ammonia. Examples of amide solutions are
I.V. sedation is heparin sodium.
lidocaine, bupivacaine, and mepivacaine.
The word anesthesia means a partial or total
absence of sensation to stimuli, such as cold, heat, or
painful irritation. In dentistry the words numb, frozen,
or asleep are examples of how the mouth can feel when
the anesthetic is administered. Dental anesthesia
comes in many forms such as gas, local, and topical to
control pain and relax patients.