have trouble living in clean places. If you keep clean,
the odds increase that you may not become ill.
DO NOT NEGLECT PREVENTIVE
MEDICINE. Take pills, shots, or vaccinations at the
KEEP YOUR NOSE, MOUTH, AND SKIN
COVERED. When BW agents are known or suspected
to be present, make sure that you use all of your
KEEP YOUR FOOD AND WATER
PROTECTED. Bottled or canned foods are safe after a
BW attack if the seals are not broken. Food in the open
will be contaminated. If in doubt, discard the food.
Always clean cans, packages, etc., with soap and water
BE ALERT FOR ANY SIGNS OF A BW
ATTACK. Any clues such as new or unusual types of
shells or bombs, strange material sprayed by aircraft,
smokes or mists of unknown nature, or other strange
substances should be reported to your commanding
WATCH OUT FOR BOOBY TRAPS. The
enemy may challenge your discipline and self-control
by making available all sorts of tempting items of food.
To eat or drink these contaminated items may mean
TREATMENT OF CASUALTIES
There are no self-aid measures for the diseases that
are caused by BW agents. It may be a matter of days
before it can be determined what types of BW agents
are present. Medical personnel will direct the
decontamination of these casualties.
Radiological warfare (RW) is the deliberate use of
radiological weapons to produce injury and death. The
explosion of a radiological weapon, similar to that of
an ordinary bomb, causes damage by the heat and blast
liberated at the time of detonation. Nuclear radiation is
emitted when the bomb explodes. This radiation may
also be released by particles called radioactive fallout.
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
The first indication of an overdose of radiation
probably will not occur for several hours or days. At
that time, you will probably become ill with nausea and
vomiting. The length of time it takes for these
symptoms to appear generally depends on the extent of
radiation exposure. The larger the dose, the quicker
you may become ill.
TYPES OF EXPLOSIONS
An air burst is a nuclear explosion that causes
damage by heat and blast. The initial radiation from an
air burst occurs within the first minute after the blast
and disappears quickly.
A ground or surface burst is one that is low or on
the ground surface. It causes less damage from the heat
and blast. This type of burst produces radioactivity
fallout or residual radiation, which lasts for a long
To protect yourself against RW, you must know
how to protect yourself during nuclear attacks and be
familiar with the kinds of equipment available for your
Speed in taking cover is vital; you must protect
yourself from the heat and the blast. Remember that the
initial radiation after an explosion can be very
dangerous. As with any explosion, the more material
or distance between you and the burst, the safer you
are. Falling flat and covering your face is better than
Any type of clothing that covers you gives some
protection against radiological weapons. To protect
the clothes you are wearing from radioactive materials,
an extra protective covering is recommended.
Gloves and Masks
When you enter a radioactive area, you must wear
gloves to protect your hands. Touching radiographic
material with bare hands may result in serious burns.
You should wear a protective mask or a dust respirator
in the affected area to prevent inhaling radioactive
materials. The point to remember is never inhale
radioactive material. Serious injury and radiation
sickness may result.