Biological control - An unprocessed biological monitor from the same lot as the test monitor. When cultured, serves as a control by verifying the viability of the unexposed organisms.
Biological monitor - A bacterial endospore test designed to assess whether sterilization has actually occurred. Also known as biological indicator or biological spore test.
Bloodborne pathogens - Pathogenic micro- organisms that are present in human blood and capable of causing disease in humans.
Bowie-Dick Type Test - A diagnostic test of a prevacuum sterilizers ability to remove air from the chamber and detect air leaks. This is not a sterility assurance test.
Chemical disinfection - The destruction or inhibition of most viruses and bacteria while in their active growth phase. The process does not necessarily kill all spores nor can it be verified by a monitor.
Chemical indicator - Chemical dyes used to determine whether the conditions required for sterilization are met. Also known as internal or external indicators, dosage indicator, or process indicator.
Contaminated - The presence or reasonably expected presence of blood or other potentially infectious material on an item or surface.
Contaminated laundry - Laundry that has been visibly soiled with blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Culture - The reproduction and growth of micro-organisms or living tissue cells in or on a nutrient medium.
Dental item classification - Dental items are classified as critical, semicritical, or noncritical based on the pathways through which cross-contamination may occur and the location and technique of instrument use.
Critical items - Instruments and materials that penetrate the skin, mucous membranes, or bone. These items must be sterile before use. Examples include surgical instruments, periodontal knives, and suture needles.
Semicritical items - Instruments, equipment, or materials that frequently contact mucous membranes, but cannot be sterilized because of their design or inability to withstand heat. At a minimum, these items require high-level disinfection. Examples include some radiographic positioning devices and plastic impression trays.
Noncritical items - Instruments, equipment, or materials that do not normally penetrate or contact mucous membranes but which are exposed to splatters, sprays, or splashing of blood, or are touched by con- taminated hands. These items require intermediate-level disinfection. Examples include the dental unit and chair.
Engineering controls - Equipment or methods that isolate or remove bloodborne pathogens from the workplace. A few examples include: use of the rubber dam; use of the high-volume evacuator during production of splash, splatter, and aerosols; adequate ventilation and air circulation; puncture-proof sharps containers; closing the lid of ultrasonic cleaners during operation; and use of cassettes to minimize handling of instruments during transport and sterilizing process.
Exposure incident - A specific eye, mouth, or other mucous membrane, nonintact skin, or percutaneous exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Exposure time - The total continuous elapsed time during which the sterilizer is operating at preselected sterilizing parameters, such as temperature and pressure.
Infectious micro-organisms - Organisms capable of producing disease in a host.
Infectious waste - Termed "regulated waste" and defined as liquid or semiliquid blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM); contaminated items that would release blood or OPIM in a liquid or semiliquid state if compressed; items caked with dried blood or OPIM that are capable of releasing those materials during handling; contaminated sharps; and pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or OPIM. Also included as OPIM are saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids.
Invasive procedure - A surgical entry into the tissues, cavities, organs, or repair of major traumatic injuries. This includes the manipulation, cutting, or removal of any oral or perioral tissue during which bleeding occurs, or the potential for bleeding exists. Routine restorative or related dental procedures are not invasive procedures. 9-3