This card is two-sided (figs. 13-14A and 13-14B)
and contains blocks for recording the casualtys
personal data, the initial diagnosis, nature of the
casualty, date and time of the injury, emergency
medical treatment rendered, casualty disposition, and
the signature of the aid person rendering the initial
treatment. Make every effort to complete the card as
accurately as possible. This information will be
extremely helpful to the medical staff after the casualty
has been transported for further medical treatment.
Burns, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat
stroke are the injuries most commonly caused by
exposure to extreme heat. Although burns caused by
contact with acids, alkalies, and other chemicals are
not true heat burns, they are discussed here.
BURNS.To provide the proper emergency
treatment for a burn, you must determine the type of
burn, the depth of the burn, and how much of the
casualtys body is burned.
Three types of burns are covered here: thermal,
chemical, and electrical. A thermal burn is caused by
exposure to heat from sources such as fire, hot objects,
hot gases, hot liquids, or explosions. A chemical burn
occurs when a person comes in contact with a caustic
chemical. An electrical burn occurs when a person
comes in contact with a live wire or is struck by
lightning. It is important to distinguish between these
types of burns because the treatment is different for
You can visually examine a burn to determine how
deep it is. Burns are classified according to their depth
as first degree, second degree, and third degree as
shown in figure 13-15.
First-degree burns are the mildest, producing a
redness of the skins outer layer, increased warmth,
tenderness, and mild pain.
Second-degree burns extend through the skins
outer layer to involve the deeper layers. The skin
reddens and blisters, and the casualty experiences
Third-degree burns destroy the skin and may
destroy underlying tissue and bone. The casualty may
not experience severe pain, because all the nerve
endings in the burn area may have been destroyed. The
color of the third-degree burn may vary from white and
lifeless to black.
To determine how much of a casualtys body is
burned, use the rules of nine (fig. 13-16). According to
this method, each of the following areas of the body
represent 9 percent of the bodys surface, with the
genital area representing 1 percent.
Figure 13-15.First, second, and third degree burns.