FAT AND CHOLESTEROL
A diet high in fat, especially saturated fat and
cholesterol, contributes to elevated blood cholesterol
levels in many people. For many, eating diets lower in
saturated fat and cholesterol reduces high blood
cholesterol levels. Adults over the age of 30 should
have a serum cholesterol level of under 200 mg/dL.
Health experts agree that less than 30% of our total
calories per day should come from fat. Reducing
dietary fat is also a good way to limit calories.
Decreased fat intake results in fewer calories without a
reduction in most nutrients. All types of fat provide 9
calories per gram.
Fats come from animal and
vegetable sources such as meat, milk, cream, butter
and cheese. Cooking oils, salad dressings, and nuts are
also dietary sources of fats.
There are 13 vitamins, and they fall into one of two
categories: fat soluble and water soluble.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins are vitamins the body can
store (in fat). Excess amounts may have toxic effects.
Fat soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K.
Vitamin AVitamin A is involved in the
formation of and maintenance of healthy skin, hair,
and mucous membranes. Vitamin A helps us to see in
dim light and is necessary for proper bone growth,
tooth development, and reproduction. Good sources
of vitamin A include yellow, orange, dark-green
vegetables, and fruits, as well as, liver, eggs, cheese,
butter, and milk.
Vitamin DVitamin D promotes calcium and
phosphorous absorption and is required for the
formation of healthy bones and teeth. Good sources
include fortified milk, egg yolk, liver, tuna, and cod
liver oil. Vitamin D is produced in the body on
exposure to sunlight.
Vitamin EVitamin E protects vitamin A and
essential fatty acids from oxidation in the body cells
and prevents breakdown of body tissues. Good
sources include vegetable oils, fortified cereals, whole
grain cereals and bread, nuts, wheat germ, and green
Vitamin KVitamin K includes a group of
vitamins that promote normal clotting of the blood and
helps maintain normal liver functions. Good sources
are green leafy vegetables, liver, soybean, and other
Water Soluble Vitamins
Water soluble vitamins include vitamin C, vitamin
B-6, vitamin B-12, folate, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin,
pantothenic acid, and biotin. For the most part, water
soluble vitamins are not stored. Thus, they should be
taken in adequate amounts each day.
Minerals are inorganic compounds that are
necessary in very small amounts for proper growth,
development, and overall health. They make up a
major portion of bones and teeth, making them rigid in
Some of the major minerals are
calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, and
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
The food guide pyramid (fig. 8-1) emphasizes
foods from the five food groups shown in the sections
of the pyramid. Each of these groups provide some,
but not all, of the nutrients we need. For good health
we need them all.
The food pyramid graphically communicates the
message of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Diets should be built upon a base of complex
carbohydrates and less fats. The placement of the food
groups starting at the base of the pyramid conveys the
current recommendations. These recommendations
are as follows:
Eat more grains, vegetables, and fruits.
Eat moderate amounts of lean meats and dairy
Use sweets, fats, and oils sparingly.
It is recommended that you eat a diet that is high in
complex carbohydrates and low in protein and fat.
Your diet should consist of at least 5 combined
servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Avoid
added fat when possible. Eat at regular intervals when
possible, and avoid snacking late at night. For detailed
information on nutrition, consult Navy Nutrition and
Weight Control Guide, NAVPERS 15602; and the Fat,
Cholesterol and Calorie List for General Messes,