Hold the atropine injector firmly in place for at least 10 seconds. The seconds can be estimated by counting "one thousand one, one thousand two," and so forth.
Firm pressure automatically triggers the coiled mechanism.
This plunges the needle through the clothing into the muscle and at the same time injects the atropine antidote into the muscle tissue.
Next, inject yourself in the same manner with the 2 PAM Cl injector using the same procedure as you did for the atropine.
This will now complete one set of nerve agent antidotes.
Attach the used injectors to your clothing (fig. 13-33).
After administering the first set of injections, wait 5 to 10 minutes before administering the second set since it takes that long for the antidote to take effect.
However, if you are able to walk and know who you are, you will not need a second set of antidote injections.
Giving yourself a second set of injections may create a nerve agent antidote overdose, which could result in incapacitation.
If symptoms of nerve agent poisoning are not relieved after administering one set of nerve agent antidote injections, seek someone else to check your symptoms.
A buddy must administer the second and possibly a third set of injections, if needed.
After administering one set of injections, you should decontaminate your skin if necessary, and put on any remaining protective clothing.
Figure 13-33. - One set of used auto injectors attached to a pocket flap.
BUDDY AID. - If you encounter a service member suffering from severe signs of nerve agent poisoning, provide the following aid:
1. Mask the casualty, if necessary. Do not fasten the hood.
2. Administer, in rapid succession, three sets of the nerve agent antidotes. Follow the procedures for administration as described previously in the self-aid section.
In addition to administering atropine and 2 PAM CI antidotes for nerve agents as buddy aid, also administer the CANA to a casualty suffering from convulsions. DO NOT administer more than one CANA.
Use the casualty's own antidote auto injectors when providing aid. Do not use your injectors on a casualty. If you do, you may not have anyt antidote available when needed for self-aid.
BLISTER AGENTS Blister agents or vesicants are likely to be used to produce casualties and force opposition to wear full protective equipment.
Blister agents are used to degrade fighting efficiency rather than kill, alhotugh exposure to such agnets can be fatal.
More likely they will cause severe blistering and burning of the exposed skin. In either liquid or vapor form, these agents will irritate and blister any part of the body that they touch.
blister agents can be effective in small amounts; a drop the size of a pinhead may produce a blister the size of a quarter.
These agents are more effective in hot weather than in cold weather.
They first affect the moist parts of the body (bends of arms and knees, armpits, and crotch.) People who are sweating are especially subject to severe burns.
If you are exposed to blister agents, changes may not occur immediately. One to several hours may pass before your skin starts to turn red.
It may be hours or even days later before blisters appear.
However, the damage is inflicted during the first few minutes of exposure.
That is why speed in applying self-aid is so important. Self aid is explained later in this chapter.Continue Reading