SKIN AND CLOTHING. - The following measures are recommended for decontamination of the skin and clothing.
Use the M291 or M258A1 decontamination kit.
If the contamination is discovered late, when no liquid blister agent is visible and reddening of the skin has developed, wash the contaminated area with soap and water. The decontamination kit will not be helpful at this stage.
Cut off hair that becomes contaminated with the liquid blister agent. Decontaminate the exposed scalp with the M291 or M258A1 decontamination kit.
If in a secure place, remove clothing that is contaminated with liquid blister agents. This applies to both ordinary clothing and to impregnated protective clothing. Decontaminate small areas with soap and water. If contamination is too great to handle with the equipment you have, cut out the contaminated parts. Do not wear the clothes; when you are able, boil them with soap and water. This will make them safe to wear.
Self-Aid and First Aid for Incapacitating Agents
By the time a victim of an incapacitating agent exposure realizes something is wrong, the individual may be too confused to handle his/her own decontamination.
Take these cases to medical immediately. These victims may not be responsible for their actions.
Self-Aid for Blood Agents Blood agents are usually released as a gas and have an odor of bitter almonds. As a victim of blood agent exposure, you must first put on your mask and then avoid any unnecessary movements. The medical officer or Hospital Corpsman will give you amyl nitrate to inhale. Squeeze the ampule until it pops. Insert 2 ampules inside the face piece of your mask under the eye lens. Repeat this at intervals of 3 or 4 minutes until normal breathing returns or until a total of 8 ampules are used.
Self-Aid for Choking Agents Upon detecting any choking agent in the air, put on your protective mask
immediately. The odor is like new-mown grass or hay. Continue with your combat duties unless you have a difficult time breathing, feel nauseated, or vomit. In those cases, take it easy and avoid unnecessary movement.
Vomiting agents are usually released as a gas and have the odor of burning fireworks. For protection against vomiting agents, put on your mask and wear it in spite of coughing, sneezing, excessive salivation, or nausea. If necessary, briefly lift the mask from your face to permit vomiting or to drain saliva from the facepiece. Clear your mask each time you adjust it to your face and before you resume breathing.
Carry on with your duties as vigorously as possible; this will help to lessen and to shorten the symptoms. Combat duties can usually be performed in spite of the effects of vomiting agents.
Agents Tear agents are usually released as a gas and have the odor of apple blossoms, chloroform, or pepper. If a liquid or solid agent has entered your eyes, force your eyes open and flush them with water.
To clear your mask, you should put it on, cover the outlet valve, and blow hard until clear.
When it is safe to remove your mask, blot away tears, but do not rub your eyes. Then, face into the wind if possible.
Biological warfare (BW) is the deliberate use of germs or their poisonous products to produce disease, injury, or death in man, animals, or plants. It is the intentional use of biological agents that makes BW dangerous.
Germs are alive. Behaving in the manner of other living things, they multiply, breathe, eat, grow, and die. Thus they depend on moisture, food, and certain limits of temperature for life and growth. When their surroundings do not provide suitable conditions, they die. Most germs are killed by boiling water, adding chlorine tablets to water, cooking food, exposing them to sunlight, and using soap and water. BW agents or their poisonous products attack your body by the same routes as CW agents-through your nose, mouth, or skin.Continue Reading