SKIN AND CLOTHING.The following
measures are recommended for decontamination of the
skin and clothing.
Use the M291 or M258A1 decontamination kit.
If the contamination is discovered late, when no
liquid blister agent is visible and reddening of the skin
has developed, wash the contaminated area with soap
and water. The decontamination kit will not be helpful
at this stage.
Cut off hair that becomes contaminated with the
liquid blister agent. Decontaminate the exposed scalp
with the M291 or M258A1 decontamination kit.
If in a secure place, remove clothing that is
contaminated with liquid blister agents. This applies to
both ordinary clothing and to impregnated protective
clothing. Decontaminate small areas with soap and
water. If contamination is too great to handle with the
equipment you have, cut out the contaminated parts. Do
not wear the clothes; when you are able, boil them with
soap and water. This will make them safe to wear.
Self-Aid and First Aid for Incapacitating
By the time a victim of an incapacitating agent
exposure realizes something is wrong, the individual
may be too confused to handle his/her own
decontamination. Take these cases to medical
immediately. These victims may not be responsible for
Self-Aid for Blood Agents
Blood agents are usually released as a gas and have
an odor of bitter almonds. As a victim of blood agent
exposure, you must first put on your mask and then
avoid any unnecessary movements. The medical
officer or Hospital Corpsman will give you amyl
nitrate to inhale. Squeeze the ampule until it pops.
Insert 2 ampules inside the face piece of your mask
under the eye lens. Repeat this at intervals of 3 or 4
minutes until normal breathing returns or until a total
of 8 ampules are used.
Self-Aid for Choking Agents
Upon detecting any choking agent in the air, put on
your protective mask immediately. The odor is like
new-mown grass or hay. Continue with your combat
duties unless you have a difficult time breathing, feel
nauseated, or vomit. In those cases, take it easy and
avoid unnecessary movement.
Self-Aid for Vomiting
Vomiting agents are usually released as a gas and
have the odor of burning fireworks. For protection
against vomiting agents, put on your mask and wear it
in spite of coughing, sneezing, excessive salivation, or
nausea. If necessary, briefly lift the mask from your
face to permit vomiting or to drain saliva from the
facepiece. Clear your mask each time you adjust it to
your face and before you resume breathing. Carry on
with your duties as vigorously as possible; this will
help to lessen and to shorten the symptoms. Combat
duties can usually be performed in spite of the effects
of vomiting agents.
Self-Aid for Tear
Tear agents are usually released as a gas and have
the odor of apple blossoms, chloroform, or pepper. If a
liquid or solid agent has entered your eyes, force your
eyes open and flush them with water. To clear your
mask, you should put it on, cover the outlet valve,
and blow hard until clear. When it is safe to remove
your mask, blot away tears, but do not rub your eyes.
Then, face into the wind if possible.
Biological warfare (BW) is the deliberate use of
germs or their poisonous products to produce disease,
injury, or death in man, animals, or plants. It is the
intentional use of biological agents that makes BW
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGICAL
Germs are alive. Behaving in the manner of other
living things, they multiply, breathe, eat, grow, and
die. Thus they depend on moisture, food, and certain
limits of temperature for life and growth. When their
surroundings do not provide suitable conditions, they
die. Most germs are killed by boiling water, adding
chlorine tablets to water, cooking food, exposing them
to sunlight, and using soap and water. BW agents or
their poisonous products attack your body by the same
routes as CW agents-through your nose, mouth, or