form is shown in figure 5-3. A system has been established in which maximum defect points are awarded for each stated requirement. The inspector assigns an appropriate number of defect points up to the maximum possible and computes a sanitary compliance score (SCS). Complete step-by-step procedures for filing the report and computing the SCS are provided in the Manual of Naval Preventive Medicine.
When inspecting food service facilities and food items, use common sense and intelligence as a yardstick. The main objectives of an inspection are to discover discrepancies in food service operation and to prevent the spread of foodborne illness. To be meaningful, inspections must be conducted carefully, thoroughly, and competently, and then evaluated. Members of the Medical Department who provide inspection services must know what is proper and improper, and why. When they note a defect, they should explain why it is a defect, why it is dangerous, and what can be done to prevent or correct the situation. Authoritarian attitudes may alienate them from the personnel whose cooperation is essential to achieve high levels of sanitation.
The proper disposal of waste materials is one of the most important measures for the control of waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid fever. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 established the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), which is a program to control water pollution in the nations waterways by limiting the discharge of polluted effluents into waters from point sources.
The Chief of Naval Operations promulgates Navy policy and assigns responsibilities concerning the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution caused by naval ships and shore stations.
The Navy Surgeon General, through the occupational and preventive medicine services at Naval Hospitals and Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Units, is responsible for evaluating wastewater disposal systems ashore and afloat to eliminate potentially hazardous conditions that could adversely affect the health of personnel.
The Chief of Naval Material, through the Naval Facilities Engineering Command and the Engineering Field Divisions, provides technical assistance on compliance with federal law and the NPDES Permit System in wastewater disposal.
Individual commanding officers are responsible for ensuring the correct disposal and treatment of wastewaters.
The use of approved municipal or regional wastewater collection and disposal systems is the preferred method of disposal of wastes from shore activities. Accordingly, municipal or regional wastewater disposal systems are used by Navy shore activities whenever feasible.
Whenever use of a municipal or regional wastewater system is not possible or appropriate, the Navy must install and operate its own wastewater treatment and disposal facilities.
Sewage may be treated by a wide variety of methods using simple self-contained systems or sophisticated engineering systems.
Medical Department responsibility in ashore waste disposal consists of periodically inspecting wastewater treatment and disposal systems to detect potential health hazards to operators and the surrounding community. This effort includes being alert for any increase in disease among treatment plant operators or members of the surrounding community that may be attributable to exposure to human wastes.
Health precautions for personnel who work with wastewater treatment systems include:
The overboard discharge of untreated sewage within the navigable waters of the United States and the territorial seas (within 3 miles of shore) is prohibited by federal law for all DOD ships. To comply with the law, naval vessels are being equipped with marine sanitation devices (MSDs) that either treat sewage before discharge or collect and hold it until it can be properly