A sample low residue diet is contained in table 3-6.
A low sodium diet consists of foods containing a very small percentage of sodium, with no salt added in preparation or by the patient. It is impossible to prepare an absolutely sodium free diet.
The low sodium diet is indicated when edema is present, in renal diseases, in hypertension, and in certain cardiac conditions.
The nephrotic patient is often unable to excrete sodium in a normal manner. The kidneys retention of sodium leads to edema. A low sodium diet is thus indicated, with no restriction on salt-free fluids. Such patients should be encouraged to drink 2,000 to 3,000 milliliters (ml) of low sodium fluids daily.
The allowance of sodium in a strict low sodium diet is 250 to 1000 mg daily. The allowance of sodium in a moderate low sodium diet is 2000 mg or 2 g. Regular diets with no salt added contain 2.4 to 4.5 g of sodium.
Any diet in which the amount of sodium is drastically reduced has possible side effects. The patient who is on this regimen must be constantly observed, particularly in warm climates, for lassitude, complaints of weakness, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, mental confusion, abdominal cramps, and aching skeletal muscles.
Beverages: Milk (2 cups daily), carbonated beverages (1 cup daily), unsalted fruit juices, coffee, and tea
Bread: Made without baking soda, baking powder, or salt. Low sodium baking soda and baking powder are allowed. Regular bread is provided on diets of 2000 mg sodium and above.
Cereals: Cooked without salt. Puffed wheat or rice, and Shredded Wheat
Desserts: Any desserts made without salt, baking soda, or baking powder
Fat: Unsalted butter and margarine, shortening, cream, oil, or low sodium salad dressing
Fruits: Any unsalted canned, cooked, fresh frozen, or raw fruit
Meat: Meat, fish, or fowl prepared without salt or sodium compounds, such as meat tenderizers, steak sauce, and soy sauce
Soups: Low sodium including broth
Sweets: Pure sugar candy and jams and jellies made without sodium benzoate
Vegetables: Salt-free raw, cooked, or canned dietetic
Foods to Avoid
Beverages: Coffee, cocoa, etc.
Cereals: All instant
Desserts: Those prepared with salt, baking soda, or baking powder
Fruits: Jam, jelly, or dried fruit containing sodium benzoate
Meats: Canned, salted, or smoked
Milk: Cultured buttermilk and chocolate milk
Vegetables: Those prepared with salt
Sauces: Soy sauce, monosodium glutamate, and steak sauce
Other: Instant foods; pancakes and waffles prepared with salt, baking soda or baking powder; pickles and olives; salted condiments; salted nuts; or peanut butter.