Many patients on low calorie diets experience
hunger. To satisfy this hunger or appetite, low
calorie foods such as raw vegetables, dill pickles,
broth, black coffee or tea, and other unsweetened
or diet beverages should be provided. Water and
salt need not be restricted unless there are cardiac
complications or edema and the restrictions are
ordered by the physician.
As the name implies, this diet is made up of
foods that furnish only small amounts of protein
and consists largely of carbohydrates and fats.
Calories should be high to spare protein. Use
foods such as marshmallows, hard candy, and
butter liberally. This diet is used in renal
diseases associated with nitrogen retention or GI
disorders when putrefaction is present. Limited
amounts of protein are sometimes advocated in
certain kidney diseases, such as chronic nephrotic
edema. Low protein diets for renal failure are
usually restricted in sodium and potassium, as
they are not excreted properly. In some cases of
chronic renal insufficiency, the protein content
of the diet is varied, usually between 40 and 60 g
per day, so that there will be sufficient complete
protein to maintain nitrogen equilibrium.
In some metabolic disturbances, such as amino
acids in the urine, protein restriction may be of
therapeutic value. A sample low protein diet is
listed in table 3-4.
Table 3-4.-Sample Low Protein Diet