nutritional well-being of the individual, but if not properly safeguarded it will be instrumental in transmitting disease. Strict surveillance of all handling procedures is necessary to prevent contamination.
The perishability of milk and milk products is a most important factor, thus strict compliance with all sanitary requirements is mandatory. Of prime importance to medical and supply department personnel are maintaining recommended temperatures in storing and dispensing, and enforcing approved sanitary methods in the handling of such products. The following definitions will help you understand milk processing.
HOMOGENIZATIONThe process of passing milk through a homogenizer, which breaks up milk fat and protein, blending cream, water, and milk solids, and preventing separation.
PASTEURIZATIONThe process of heating milk or milk products to at least 145°F and maintaining this temperature for at least 30 minutes, or to at least 161°F and maintaining this temperature at least 15 seconds in approved and properly operated equipment, or any other pasteurization technique recognized by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). Milk products having a higher milk-fat content than milk or containing added sweeteners must be heated to at least 5°F above the minimum pasteurization temperature noted.
ULTRA-HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSEDThe process of aseptically packaging milk in containers and bringing it to an ultra-high temperature for a short period of time.
Milk and milk products, to be acceptable for serving at Navy and Marine Corps dining facilities ashore and afloat, must originate from an approved source. These sources are in NAVSUPINST 4355.4 series, Directory of Sanitarily Approved Establishments for Armed Forces Procurement. Also acceptable is an establishment having a pasteurization plant compliance rating of 90 or more, as certified by a state milk sanitation rating officer.
When performing delivery inspections, Medical Department personnel must ensure that milk and milk products are from an approved source and delivered in containers that are in good condition and properly sealed; that milk and milk products are organoleptically acceptable; and that the temperature of the product on delivery is 45°F or below or in accordance with current DPSC contract. Vehicles used in the transportation of milk in its final delivery containers must be clean and constructed with permanent tops and sides. Block or crushed ice on the tops of milk cartons for refrigeration or cooling during delivery or on the serving lines is prohibited.
Single-service containers of milk and milk products must be refrigerated at temperatures below 45°F until served.
All milk and milk products dispensed from bulk milk dispensers must be homogenized. Temperatures in the dispenser cabinet must range between 38° to 44°F while milk containers are stored within. A thermometer is an integral part of the dispenser cabinet. Multiuse dispenser tubes are prohibited. Single-service dispenser tubes will be cut with a sanitized cutting instrument to 1/4 inch beyond the termination of the dispensing mechanism. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products must be made routinely and whenever contamination or contract nonconformance is suspected.
When the pitcher method of recombining and dispensing milk is used, pitchers must be cleaned and sanitized before use. Only cool, potable water will be used for reconstituting, and milk will be dispensed only from corrosion-resistant stainless steel or glass pitchers washed and sanitized after each use. Milk remaining in the pitcher after a meal period must be used within 36 hours for cooking purposes only or be discarded.
Ice cream served in Navy and Marine Corps dining facilities must be from approved sources and meet federal and military standards. If prepared locally from a mix, only potable water will be used. The freezer must be cleaned after each days operation. Bulk ice cream and other bulk frozen desserts are not authorized for self-service. All utensils including spoons, spatulas, dippers, and scoops used for dispensing ice cream must be kept either in running potable water or potable water that is changed several times during operation. To minimize health risks, only one person per watch section will make ice cream. Ice cream will be stored at temperatures of 0°F or lower.