This condition is an infestation of the skin by body lice. The louse inhabits the seams of clothing and feeds on the skin, which results in severe itching and produces small red lesions occurring from the bites. The most common sites of lesions are the buttocks, shoulders, and abdomen. The body louse is an important vector in transmitting typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.
This condition is characterized by infestation of the anogenital regions with crab lice. This infestation is the result of direct contact with the lice through sexual activity, toilet seats, clothing, or bedding. The louse is comparatively large but not eaily seen, and itching is almost always present. The patient may note the presence of small specks on the sheets upon arising.
TREATMENTThe treatment for all pedi- culosis infestations consists of applying ointments containing benzoate and benzocaine and main- taining proper hygiene habits. Use caution when treating around the eyes. Two applications of medication are usually sufficient. Check contacts. Use calamine lotion to control itching, and launder all bedding and clothing.
Abnormal levels of consciousness may be associated with decreased or increased neurological activity, such as stupor, coma, delirium, or violent behavior. There may be partial to complete mental clouding or loss of consciousness. Frequent causes are cerebro- vascular accident (CVA), drugs, poisons, and fever.
The two major categories of loss of conscious- ness are stupor and coma. Stupor ranges from partial to almost complete loss of consciousness. Coma is complete unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be roused.
In any case of consciousness disorder, it is important to obtain a complete history from those who know the patient or who may have witnessed the incident causing it. Perform a thorough physical examination, including checking the pupils for size and reaction to light. The key points to look for when a neurological disorder is suspected are abnormal vital signs, signs of injury, or alcohol or drug intoxication. Also look for discolorations of the skin in the area behind the ears that may indicate a skull fracture.
TREATMENTThe immediate objective of treatment is to maintain life until a specific diagnosis is made. Avoid sedatives and stimulants, and keep semiconscious patients NPO. Catheter- ize unconscious patients and test the urine for sugar, acetone, and albumin. Treat symptomati- cally.
Syncope is a temporary loss of consciousness as in fainting. Vertigo is an illusionary sensation of motion.
SYMPTOMSThe patient is usually in an upright position when an attack occurs. He or she may experience mot or weakness, epigastric distress, perspiration, restlessness, yawning and sighing, bradycardia, and a fall in blood pressure.
TREATMENTPlace the patient in the shock position, and administer spirits of ammonia.
Headaches are so common that most everyone has some experience with them at one time or another. They may be caused by tension, tumors, trauma, or any number of other causes. The following are the more common types of headaches.
TensionThese headaches are caused by spasm or contraction of diseased muscles or adjacent structures, or they may be associated wit h fatigue or emotional stress. The muscles attached to the occiput are the most frequently involved. This is the most common type of headache.
SYMPTOMSThe common complaints are a feeling of pressure or tightness or a bandlike constriction and pain.
TREATMENTGeneral measures consist of analgesics, rest, relaxation, massage, and heat applied to the involved musculature.