This chapter deals with many factors that contribute to the cleanliness and efficiency of naval activities as well as to the health and attitude of personnel. Maintaining the highest state of health and physical readiness of all Navy personnel is the responsibility of the commanding officer, who, in turn, looks to the Medical Department for advice, recommendations, and establishment of standards.
Prevention and control of disease have for many years been considered the most desirable route to good health. Material included in this chapter should provide you with a general knowledge of the principles and practices of the Navys Preventive Medicine Program.
Two of the most important principles of preventive medicine are communicable disease and vector control. For detailed information on these subjects refer to the HM 3 & 2 Rate Training Manual.
A habitable and healthful environment must prevail in living and berthing spaces ashore and afloat to maintain the efficiency of naval personnel. Major factors pertaining to living and berthing spaces are sleeping arrangements, floor area, ventilation and air volume, heating, sanitary fixtures, and related features such as lighting and color.
The Medical Department representative makes recommendations to the commanding officer that will ensure the highest level of sanitation. This can best be accomplished through a program of inspections.
Some sanitary measures are directed toward maintaining the environment as dust-free as possible. Toward this end, the use of detergent and water and other cleaning agents has replaced the practice of dry-sweeping. Excessive quantities of detergent water warp wooden floors, loosen inlaid tile and linoleum, and splash and foul bulkheads and equipment. Only if grease and grit are ground into the deck should you use a scrub brush and detergent. Generally, mopping down with a clean mop moistened with clean water and detergent, followed by a second mopping down with a clean mop rinsed in clean water and wrung out, will produce clean floors or decks. Daily attention to the cleanliness of the paint work on stanchions and bulkheads is more desirable than vigorous cleaning at less frequent intervals.
Dry clean and launder textiles such as blankets, sheets, and mattress covers frequently to keep the bedding as clean and dustfree as possible. Dirty bedding, bunk bottoms, and lashings result in bad odors and provide ideal living and breeding conditions for insects. If possible, store mattresses for vacant bunks stored in a space or locker inaccessible to loungers. Washable fire-resistant covers are provided for each bunk to keep the bedding clean.
Clean drinking fountains at least once daily, with particular attention paid to the bowl, orifice, and orifice guard, to prevent accumulation of slime. Drinking fountains should be of the angle-jet type.
Water closets, urinals, lavatories, and showers should receive a thorough cleaning daily. This should include not only the inner and outer surfaces, but also all connecting pipes, valves, and other plumbing adjacent to the fixtures. Failure to properly clean these areas results in discolorations and foul odors.Thorough cleaning usually makes the use of deodorant blocks unnecessary. Failure to clean in the area of lavatories and showers results in unattractive accumulations of soap scum, scale, dust, fungus, or mold. Thoroughly clean mops, brooms, brushes, and rags and then stow them after each use. Store