marked clean or contaminated. Decon-
tamination kits, protective ointment, and an
abundant supply of soap and water must be
provided. In addition, standard first-aid items
should be on hand. It will be extremely helpful
if small trestles, boxes, or similar supports are
improvised so that stretchers may be placed on
them and thus be raised off the deck.
Personnel handling contaminated cases must
avoid spreading contamination to other personnel
and to spaces not set aside as areas of reception of
contaminated cases. Contaminated personnel,
clothing, or equipment must be kept out of
uncontaminated areas. The subsequent decon-
tamination of such spaces is quite difficult and
must be avoided. Contaminated clothing and gear
must be placed in designated dump areas and,
insofar as practical, must be kept in metal cans
with tightly fitting covers.
The medical officer or Medical Department
representative is responsible for maintaining
adequate supplies for the decontamination and
treatment of CBR casualties.
Medical decontamination supplies are supplied
to ships of the force on a personnel strength
basis as listed in current AMALs.
The cabinets will be kept locked, and the keys
will be in custody of the damage control
assistant during emergency conditions. Cabinets
and chests will be stenciled with a red cross
and marked DECONTAMINATION MEDI-
The quantities of specific drugs that com-
mands and activities are required to maintain for
defense against chemical and biological warfare
are given in NAVMEDCOMINST 6710.3.
Epidemics arising from natural causes have
plagued military forces for centuries and in many
instances have determined the outcome of
campaigns. In the past, recognition of this drain
on personnel undoubtedly has led to attempts to
produce illness in epidemic proportions through
pollution of water and food supplies as well as
through other means, but the dissemination of
disease-producing organisms has never been
employed on any significant scale as a weapon
Since World War II, due to the general
advancement of knowledge in the various fields
of biological sciences and as a result of known
research in many countries on the use of
microorganisms as a weapon of war, biological
warfare has become a very real possibility.
In the hands of an unscrupulous enemy,
antianimal and antiplant agents could be powerful
instruments of war, reducing or destroying a
nations food supply. This chapter, however, is
concerned only with agents that would be
effective against populations, and although their
effectiveness has never been established by
actual use in war, they are considered to have
grave military capabilities.
Biological warfare has certain aspects in
common with chemical warfare in that biological
agents may be dispersed in the air and may travel
downwind in the same manner as a gas cloud.
These agents may be inhaled unless a protective
mask is worn and may cause disability or death.
They are capable of contaminating clothing,
equipment, food, and water supplies. Some types
of agents may persist in the target area for
considerable periods of time.
Biological agents, unlike most war gases,
cannot be detected by the physical senses or by
chemical detectors, and their presence or identity
can be determined only by laboratory examina-
tion of air samples or contaminated objects. The
time lag between exposure and the onset of disease
symptoms will usually be a matter of days, rather
than hours, as is the case with most chemical
agents. All persons will not be similarly affected
even though exposed to the same dosage of
biological agents. Some may escape disease
entirely, some may have a very mild attack, and
some may become seriously ill.
As in the case of exposure to most com-
municable diseases, the natural resistance of the
body and the maintenance of the body in the best
possible physical condition constitute important
lines of defense against biological agents.
However, immunity and states of good health
cannot be expected to triumph over massive
onslaughts of biological agents that may have
been tailored to create varying degrees of
incapacitation including death. To reduce the
effectiveness of such attacks, protective equip-
ment has been provided and defensive measures
have been delineated to protect the individual.