efficiency. The vaccine is a turbid, whitish liquid
with little or no odor. The presence of any
precipitate is reason to suspect contamination.
Influenza Virus Vaccine
The influenza virus vaccine is prepared from
the allantoic fluid of incubated fertile hen eggs.
It is a slightly hazy fluid, which is the result of
slight amounts of egg protein. Its color varies
from gray to very faint red, depending upon the
method of manufacture.
The duration of immunity is probably no
longer than a few months, which necessitates
repeating the inoculation prior to the expected
Do not inoculate individuals who are known
to be sensitive to eggs or egg products, or person-
nel suffering from upper respiratory infections.
Dried Smallpox Vaccine
This vaccine is prepared directly from calf
lymph, purified, concentrated, stabilized, and
dried by lyophilization. Dried smallpox vaccine
is much more stable than the conventional liquid.
When stored at or below 25°C, it retains its full
potency for 18 months. When reconstituted, it re-
tains its full potency for 3 months if kept below
4°C (preferable 0°C).
FACTORS TO BE REMEMBERED IN
CONNECTION WITH BIOLOGICAL
Acquisition. Most immunizing agents that
are used in routine procedures may be ob-
tained through normal supply channels.
Yellow fever vaccine must be ordered from
activities that have been designated as
supply points for this biological.
Storage. Biological will be stored in a cool,
dry, and preferably dark place. Yellow
fever vaccine must be maintained in a
frozen state until prepared for use.
All biological products
should be examined periodically, and a
minute examination for deterioration will
be held immediately preceding their use.
EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTERAL
Solutions will have been examined at least
three times at the activity at which they are
1. Upon receiving the solution.
Periodically while in storage.
Immediately preceding use. Parenteral
solutions, unless the label states otherwise,
must be free of turbidity or undissolved
material. All solutions should be inverted
and gently swirled in order to bring any
sediment or particulate matter into view.
A well-illuminated black or white back-
ground will facilitate this examination.
Parenteral solutions may be unfit for use
1. Deterioration from prolonged storage.
2. Accidental contamination occurring upon
3. Defects that may develop in containers or
There is no set rule that can be applicable in
regards to any of these factors. Therefore, to en-
sure suitability for use, a regimented program of
inspection is necessary.
Toxicology is the science of poisons. It is con-
cerned with the detection, isolation, and quan-
titative estimation of poisons, their chemical and
physiologic effect on the ordinarily healthy
organism, and the antidotes for their toxic effects.
A poison is a substance that may produce
death, serious illness, or harmful effects when in-
troduced into the body in a relatively small
The effects of poisons maybe local or remote
and some poisons have both effects. LOCAL EF-
FECT means direct action on the part to which
the poison is applied, such as corrosion and ir-
ritation. REMOTE EFFECT means the action of
the poison on some organ remote from the site
of application or point of introduction.
Sometimes, a poison shows no effect or only a
slight one, until several doses have been taken.
Then suddenly, an effect is produced that nearly
equals that produced by taking the whole amount
at one time. This is known as CUMULATIVE
The effect of a poison depends upon its
volubility, the method of its introduction into the
body, and the rapidity of its absorption into the
system. The method of introduction may deter-
mine its toxicity. For example, snake venom taken
into the mouth and perhaps even into the stomach