efficiency. The vaccine is a turbid, whitish liquid with little or no odor. The presence of any precipitate is reason to suspect contamination.
The influenza virus vaccine is prepared from the allantoic fluid of incubated fertile hen eggs. It is a slightly hazy fluid, which is the result of slight amounts of egg protein. Its color varies from gray to very faint red, depending upon the method of manufacture.
The duration of immunity is probably no longer than a few months, which necessitates repeating the inoculation prior to the expected seasonal occurrence.
Do not inoculate individuals who are known to be sensitive to eggs or egg products, or personnel suffering from upper respiratory infections.
This vaccine is prepared directly from calf lymph, purified, concentrated, stabilized, and dried by lyophilization. Dried smallpox vaccine is much more stable than the conventional liquid. When stored at or below 25°C, it retains its full potency for 18 months. When reconstituted, it retains its full potency for 3 months if kept below 4°C (preferable 0°C).
FACTORS TO BE REMEMBERED IN CONNECTION WITH BIOLOGICAL
1. Acquisition. Most immunizing agents that are used in routine procedures may be obtained through normal supply channels. Yellow fever vaccine must be ordered from activities that have been designated as supply points for this biological.
2. Storage. Biological will be stored in a cool, dry, and preferably dark place. Yellow fever vaccine must be maintained in a frozen state until prepared for use.
3. Examination. All biological products should be examined periodically, and a minute examination for deterioration will be held immediately preceding their use.
Solutions will have been examined at least three times at the activity at which they are ultimately used:
1. Upon receiving the solution.
2. Periodically while in storage.
3. Immediately preceding use. Parenteral solutions, unless the label states otherwise, must be free of turbidity or undissolved material. All solutions should be inverted and gently swirled in order to bring any sediment or particulate matter into view. A well-illuminated black or white background will facilitate this examination.
Parenteral solutions may be unfit for use because of:
1. Deterioration from prolonged storage.
2. Accidental contamination occurring upon original packaging.
3. Defects that may develop in containers or seals.
There is no set rule that can be applicable in regards to any of these factors. Therefore, to ensure suitability for use, a regimented program of inspection is necessary.
Toxicology is the science of poisons. It is concerned with the detection, isolation, and quantitative estimation of poisons, their chemical and physiologic effect on the ordinarily healthy organism, and the antidotes for their toxic effects.
A poison is a substance that may produce death, serious illness, or harmful effects when introduced into the body in a relatively small quantity.
The effects of poisons maybe local or remote and some poisons have both effects. LOCAL EFFECT means direct action on the part to which the poison is applied, such as corrosion and irritation. REMOTE EFFECT means the action of the poison on some organ remote from the site of application or point of introduction. Sometimes, a poison shows no effect or only a slight one, until several doses have been taken. Then suddenly, an effect is produced that nearly equals that produced by taking the whole amount at one time. This is known as CUMULATIVE EFFECT.
The effect of a poison depends upon its volubility, the method of its introduction into the body, and the rapidity of its absorption into the system. The method of introduction may determine its toxicity. For example, snake venom taken into the mouth and perhaps even into the stomach