applications of insecticides be accomplished. The
effectiveness of any residual insecticide will vary
with both the species of chigger and the area in-
volved. Consequently, for adequate results, ex-
perimentation with materials and application rates
may be necessary. Contact the area preventive
medicine unit or DVECC for help or guidance.
Control measures for scabies or itch mites
should be supervised by a medical officer. Con-
trol consists of treating infested individuals with
a 1 percent gamma isomer of BHC (lindane) or
other prescribed material and heat sterilization of
clothing and bedding.
TICKS. Ticks are annoying pests because of
their bite and their ability to cause tick paralysis.
They also are important vectors of infectious
disease, including tularemia, Q fever, endemic
relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever,
tick-borne typhus, and Colorado tick fever.
The two principal types of ticks are hard and
soft ticks. The hard ticks are identifiable by their
distinct hard dorsal covering. They attach
themselves to their hosts during feeding and may
remain there for a long time before engorgement
is completed. The soft ticks lack the distinct hard
dorsal covering. They hide in cracks and crevices
in houses or in the nests of their hosts and come
out at night to feed on the blood of the host for
a short period. The larvae and nymphs generally
feed several times before molting.
Protection from ticks begins with avoidance
of infested areas whenever possible and wearing
of protective clothing. High-top shoes, boots, leg-
gings, or socks pulled up over the trouser cuffs
help to prevent ticks from crawling onto the legs
and body. At the end of the day, or more often,
thoroughly inspect the body for attached ticks,
making sure that none have migrated from in-
fested to fresh clothing or bedding. This is critical
as some species of hard ticks can cause paralysis,
resulting in death, especially in small children
when allowed to feed for prolonged periods.
Personal application of the standard-issue in-
sect repellent is effective against ticks. Apply the
repellent by drawing the mouth of the inverted
bottle along the inside and outside of clothing
openings. Treatments with 2 fluid ounces (59.15)
of repellent per man per treatment have proved
to be effective for 3 to 5 days. Impregnation of
clothing with repellents is the method of choice
for the protection of troops operating in
All ticks found on the body should be removed
at once. The best method for removing attached
ticks is to coat them with Vaseline, baking powder
paste, or clear nail polish. Care should be taken
not to crush the tick or to break off the embedded
mouth parts, which could be a source of infec-
tion. The wound should be treated with an
Clearing vegetation from infested areas will
aid in the control of ticks and is recommended
for bivouac and training grounds. All low vegeta-
tion should be uprooted with a bulldozer or cut
and then burned or hauled away.
When troops must live or maneuver for
periods of time in tick-infested zones, area con-
trol by residual application of sprays, dusts, or
granules should be achieved. Residual treatments
in living spaces are to made to infected areas only.
FLEAS. Fleas are intimately connected with
the transmission of disease, including bubonic
plague and endemic or murine typhus. They are
also the intermediate host of certain parasitic
Fleas are ectoparasites of birds and mammals.
The nest or burrow of the host is the breeding
place and contains the egg, larva, pupa, and fre-
quently the adult flea. Most fleas do not remain
on their hosts continuously. Unlike most blood-
sucking insects, fleas feed at frequent intervals,
usually at least once a day.
Flea-infested areas should be avoided when
possible. Protection can be afforded by wearing
protective clothing or by rolling the socks up over
the trouser cuffs to prevent fleas from jumping
onto the skin. The application of standard-issue
insect repellents is effective for short periods.
Transmission of plague and endemic or
murine typhus may be controlled by applying in-
secticidal dusts to rat runs and harborages. If ro-
dent control measures are to be undertaken when
flea-borne diseases are prevalent, dust rat burrows
before beginning rodent control to prevent fleas
from leaving dead or trapped rats and migrating
to humans or animals.
Control of dog and cat fleas can be obtained
through the use of a dust or a spray applied di-
rectly to the animal. Area applications, for the
control of dog and cat fleas, may be made using
RODENTS. Rodents such as rats, mice, and
ground squirrels are reservoirs for plague,
endemic typhus, tularemia, and many other
debilitating diseases. In addition, they can cause
property damage and destruction. Rodents occur
throughout the world; therefore, their control is
a problem in any geographic location.