operations should be performed in phases. These
rescue phases apply only to extrication operations.
The first phase is to remove lightly pinned
casualties, such as those who can be freed by lift-
ing boxes or removing a small amount of debris.
In the second phase remove those casualties
who are trapped in more difficult circumstances
but who can be rescued by use of the equipment
at hand and in a minimum amount of time.
In the third phase remove casualties where ex-
trication is extremely difficult and time consum-
ing. This type of rescue may involve cutting
through decks, breaching bulkheads, removing
large amounts of debris, or cutting through an
expanse of metal. An example would be rescuing
a worker from beneath a large, heavy piece of
The last phase is the removal of dead bodies.
Stages of Extrication
The first stage of extrication within each of
the rescue phases outlined above is gaining access
to the victim. Much will depend on the location of
the accident, damage within the accident site, and
the position of the victim. The means of gaining
access must also take into account the possibility
of causing further injury to the victim since force
may be needed. Further injury must be minimized.
The second stage involves giving lifesaving
emergency care. If necessary, establish and main-
tain an open airway, start artificial respiration,
and control hemorrhage.
The third stage is disentanglement. The careful
removal of debris and other impediments from
the victim will prevent further injury to both the
victim and the rescuer.
The fourth stage is preparing the victim for
removal, with special emphasis on the protection
of possible fractures.
The final stage, removing the victim from the
trapped area and transporting to an ambulance
or sickbay, may be as simple as helping the vic-
tim walk out of the area or as difficult as a blanket
dragged out of a burning space.
Rescue from Fire
If you must go to the aid of a person whose
clothing is on fire, try to smother the flames by
wrapping the victim in a coat, blanket, or rug.
Leave the head UNCOVERED. If you have no
material with which to smother the fire, roll the
victim overSLOWLYand beat out the flames
with your hands. Beat out the flames around the
head and shoulders, and then work downward
toward the feet. If the victim tries to run, throw
him or her down. Remember that the victim
MUST lie down while you are trying to extinguish
the fire. Running will cause the clothing to burn
rapidly. Sitting or standing may cause the victim
to be killed instantly by inhaling flames or hot air.
CAUTION: Inhaling flame or hot air can kill
YOU, too. Do not get your face directly over the
flames. Turn your face away from the flame when
If your own clothing catches fire, roll yourself
up in a blanket, coat, or rug. KEEP YOUR
HEAD UNCOVERED. If material to smother the
fire is not available, lie down, roll over slowly,
and beat at the flames with your hands.
If you are trying to escape from an upper floor
of a burning building, be very cautious about
opening doors into hallways or stairways. Always
feel a door before you open it; if it feels hot, do
not open it if there is any other possible way out.
Remember, also, that opening doors or windows
will create a draft and make the fire worse; so do
not open any door or window until you are ac-
tually ready to get out.
If you are faced with the problem of remov-
ing an injured person from an upper story of a
burning building, you may be able to improvise
a life-line by tying sheets, blankets, curtains, or
other materials together, using square knots.
Secure one end around some heavy object inside
the building, and fasten the other end around the
casualty under the arms. You can lower the victim
to safety and then let yourself down the line. Do
not jump from an upper floor of a burning
building except as a last resort.
It is often said the the best air in a burning
room or compartment is near the floor, but this
is true only to a limited extent. There is less smoke
and flame down low, near the floor, and the air
may be cooler; but carbon monoxide and other
deadly gases are just as likely to be present near
the floor as near the ceiling. If possible, use an
oxygen breathing apparatus or other protective
breathing equipment when you go into a burning
compartment. If protective equipment is not
available, cover your mouth and nose with a wet
cloth to reduce the danger of inhaling smoke,
flame, or hot air. REMEMBER, HOWEVER,
THAT A WET CLOTH GIVES YOU NO PRO-
TECTION AGAINST POISONOUS GASES OR
LACK OF OXYGEN!
Rescue from Steam-filled Spaces
It is sometimes possible to rescue a person
from a space in which there is a steam leak. Since