operations should be performed in phases. These rescue phases apply only to extrication operations
The first phase is to remove lightly pinned casualties, such as those who can be freed by lifting boxes or removing a small amount of debris.
In the second phase remove those casualties who are trapped in more difficult circumstances but who can be rescued by use of the equipment at hand and in a minimum amount of time.
In the third phase remove casualties where extrication is extremely difficult and time consuming. This type of rescue may involve cutting through decks, breaching bulkheads, removing large amounts of debris, or cutting through an expanse of metal. An example would be rescuing a worker from beneath a large, heavy piece of machinery.
The last phase is the removal of dead bodies.
The first stage of extrication within each of the rescue phases outlined above is gaining access to the victim. Much will depend on the location of the accident, damage within the accident site, and the position of the victim. The means of gaining access must also take into account the possibility of causing further injury to the victim since force may be needed. Further injury must be minimized.
The second stage involves giving lifesaving emergency care. If necessary, establish and maintain an open airway, start artificial respiration, and control hemorrhage.
The third stage is disentanglement. The careful removal of debris and other impediments from the victim will prevent further injury to both the victim and the rescuer.
The final stage, removing the victim from the trapped area and transporting to an ambulance or sickbay, may be as simple as helping the victim walk out of the area or as difficult as a blanket dragged out of a burning space.
If you must go to the aid of a person whose clothing is on fire, try to smother the flames by wrapping the victim in a coat, blanket, or rug. Leave the head UNCOVERED. If you have no material with which to smother the fire, roll the victim overSLOWLYand beat out the flames with your hands. Beat out the flames around the head and shoulders, and then work downward toward the feet. If the victim tries to run, throw him or her down. Remember that the victim MUST lie down while you are trying to extinguish the fire. Running will cause the clothing to burn rapidly. Sitting or standing may cause the victim to be killed instantly by inhaling flames or hot air.
CAUTION: Inhaling flame or hot air can kill YOU, too. Do not get your face directly over the flames. Turn your face away from the flame when you inhale.
If your own clothing catches fire, roll yourself up in a blanket, coat, or rug. KEEP YOUR HEAD UNCOVERED. If material to smother the fire is not available, lie down, roll over slowly, and beat at the flames with your hands.
If you are trying to escape from an upper floor of a burning building, be very cautious about opening doors into hallways or stairways. Always feel a door before you open it; if it feels hot, do not open it if there is any other possible way out. Remember, also, that opening doors or windows will create a draft and make the fire worse; so do not open any door or window until you are actually ready to get out. If you are faced with the problem of removing an injured person from an upper story of a burning building, you may be able to improvise a life-line by tying sheets, blankets, curtains, or other materials together, using square knots. Secure one end around some heavy object inside the building, and fasten the other end around the casualty under the arms. You can lower the victim to safety and then let yourself down the line. Do not jump from an upper floor of a burning building except as a last resort.
It is often said the the best air in a burning room or compartment is near the floor, but this is true only to a limited extent. There is less smoke and flame down low, near the floor, and the air may be cooler; but carbon monoxide and other deadly gases are just as likely to be present near the floor as near the ceiling. If possible, use an oxygen breathing apparatus or other protective breathing equipment when you go into a burning compartment. If protective equipment is not available, cover your mouth and nose with a wet cloth to reduce the danger of inhaling smoke, flame, or hot air. REMEMBER, HOWEVER, THAT A WET CLOTH GIVES YOU NO PROTECTION AGAINST POISONOUS GASES OR LACK OF OXYGEN!
It is sometimes possible to rescue a person from a space in which there is a steam leak. Since