derivatives are severe respiratory depressants. Small doses dull the cough reflex and larger doses abolish it. These drugs may cause constipation by diminishing the secretions of the gastrointestinal tract and increasing the tone of the intestinal muscles to the point of spasm. Members of this class are used as analgesics, cough sedatives, and for certain types of diarrhea.
ACTION AND USE. Paregoric is mainly used as an intestinal tranquilizer to control diarrhea.
USUAL DOSE. 5 to 10 ml one to four times daily.
ACTION AND USE. This drug is indicated for the relief of severe pain and is used preoperatively to sedate patients. It is also used in the treatment of severe pain associated with myocardial infarction. It is contraindicated in patients with head injuries, acute alcoholism, and convulsive disorders.
ACTION AND USE. Codeine sulfate is like morphine, but has one-sixth of the analgesic power and one-fourth of the respiratory depressant effect of morphine. It is used for moderate to severe pain and as an antitussive.
USUAL DOSE. As an analgesic, give 15 to 60 mg every 4 hours, regardless of route. As an antitussive, give 10 to 20 mg every 4 to 6 hours. DO NOT EXCEED 120 MG IN 24 HOURS.
ACTION AND USE. This is a synthetic analgesic similar to morphine. It is used for moderate to severe pain and as a preoperative medication. It is not as effective as morphine in its analgesic properties.
USUAL DOSE. As an analgesic, adjust dosage according to the severity of pain and the response of the patient. Give 50 to 150 mg intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or orally every 3 to 4 hours as necessary.
Tranquilizers and mood modifiers are the two primary groups of psychotherapeutic agents. They are classified as major tranquilizers, minor tranquilizers, and mood modifiers. The mood modifiers have replaced the amphetamines as treatment of choice for depressive states.
ACTION AND USE. This drug is indicated for alleviating manifestations of psychosis, tension, and agitation. Dosage is highly individualized depending on the severity of symptoms and degree of response. It may also be used as an antiemetic.
USUAL DOSE. As an antiemetic, give up to 0.5 mg per pound every 4 to 6 hours as needed. As an antipsychotic, dosage is individualized as described above and may range from 10 mg to 1 g daily, usually given in three divided doses.
ACTION AND USE. Thioridazine is used for antipsychotic purposes and is considered to be a good all-around tranquilizer.
USUAL DOSE. Starting dose is 50 to 100 mg three times daily with gradual incremental increases to a maximum of 800 mg per day, if necessary.
ACTION AND USE. This drug is most often used in the symptomatic treatment of nausea and vomiting but shares all the antipsychotic effects of chlorpromazine.
USUAL DOSE. Orally, give 5 to 20 mg three or four times daily. Rectally, give 25 mg twice daily. Intramuscular dosage should not exceed 40 mg daily. It is available as tablets, capsules, syrups, injections, and suppositories.
ACTION AND USE. Haloperidol is indicated in the treatment of schizophrenia with manifestations of acute manic symptoms, social withdrawal, and paranoid behavior, and the manic stage of manic-depressive patients. 7-21