Table 4-6.-Examples of common acids, alkalies, and
phenols with possible sources of contact
SOURCES OF CONTACT
Electroplating, metal cleaners,
Industrial cleaners, laboratories,
photoengraving, rocket fuels
Cleaning solutions, paint and
rust removers, photo developer
Auto batteries, detergents, dyes,
laboratories, metal cleaners
Galvanizes, household cleaners,
laboratories, pesticides, rocket
Brick masonry, cement, elec-
Bleaches, degreasers, detergents,
laboratories, paint and varnish
Disinfectants, dry batteries,
paint removers, photo materials,
Disinfectants, ink, paint and var-
nish removers, photo developer,
Asbestos, carpentry, diesel en-
gines, electrical shops, furnaces,
lens grinders, painters, water-
proofing, wood preservatives
be compounded. In addition, the threat of aspira-
tion during vomiting is too great. Gastric lavage
could cause perforation of the esophagus or
stomach, therefore, use it only on a doctors
order. First aid consists of diluting the corrosive
and keeping alert for airway patency and shock.
If spontaneous vomiting occurs, administer an
Controversy exists over the value of at-
tempting to neutralize corrosives because of the
exothermic (heat producing) reaction when acids
and alkalies are mixed. Therefore, do not attempt
to neutralize corrosives unless directed to do so
by a physician. When neutralizing acids, use milk
of magnesia following dilution. DO NOT use car-
bonates; they generate carbon dioxide gas which
may cause perforation. When neutralizing
alkalies, use a dilute solution of vinegar in water.
Transport all poisoning patients to a medical treat-
ment facility for evaluation and further treatment.
Volatile petroleum products such as kerosene,
gasoline, turpentine, and related petroleum prod-
ucts, such as red furniture polish, usually cause
severe chemical pneumonia as well as other toxic
effects in the body. Symptoms include abdominal
pain, choking, gasping, vomiting, and fever.
Often these products may be identified by their
characteristic odor. Mineral oil and motor oil are
not as serious, since they usually do nothing more
than cause diarrhea.
When providing treatment for the ingestion
of petroleum distillates, DO NOT INDUCE
VOMITING unless told to do so by a physician
or poison control center. Vomiting may cause ad-
ditional poison to enter the lungs. However, the
quantity of poison swallowed or special petroleum
additives may make gastric lavage or the use of
1. If a physician or poison control center can-
not be reached, give the victim 30 to 60 ml
of vegetable oil.
2. Transport the victim immediately to a
medical treatment facility.
Shellfish and Fish Poisoning
Mussels, clams, oysters, and other shellfish
often become contaminated with bacteria during
the warm months of March through November.
Numerous varieties of shellfish should not be
eaten at all, so wherever you serve in the world,
learn which local seafoods are known to be safe.