be compounded. In addition, the threat of aspiration during vomiting is too great. Gastric lavage could cause perforation of the esophagus or stomach, therefore, use it only on a doctors order. First aid consists of diluting the corrosive and keeping alert for airway patency and shock. If spontaneous vomiting occurs, administer an antiemetic.
Controversy exists over the value of attempting to neutralize corrosives because of the exothermic (heat producing) reaction when acids and alkalies are mixed. Therefore, do not attempt to neutralize corrosives unless directed to do so by a physician. When neutralizing acids, use milk of magnesia following dilution. DO NOT use carbonates; they generate carbon dioxide gas which may cause perforation. When neutralizing alkalies, use a dilute solution of vinegar in water. Transport all poisoning patients to a medical treatment facility for evaluation and further treatment.
Table 4-6.-Examples of common acids, alkalies, and phenols with possible sources of contact
|AGENT||SOURCES OF CONTACT|
|Hydrochloric||Electroplating, metal cleaners, photoengraving|
|Nitric||Industrial cleaners, laboratories, photoengraving, rocket fuels|
|Oxalic||Cleaning solutions, paint and rust removers, photo developer|
|Sulfuric||Auto batteries, detergents, dyes, laboratories, metal cleaners|
|Ammonia||Galvanizes, household cleaners, laboratories, pesticides, rocket fuels|
|Lime||Brick masonry, cement, electroplating, insecticides, soap, water treatment|
|Lye||Bleaches, degreasers, detergents, laboratories, paint and varnish removers|
|Creosol||Disinfectants, ink, paint and varnish removers, photo developer, stainers|
|Creosote||Asbestos, carpentry, diesel engines, electrical shops, furnaces, lens grinders, painters, waterproofing, wood preservatives|
Volatile petroleum products such as kerosene, gasoline, turpentine, and related petroleum products, such as red furniture polish, usually cause severe chemical pneumonia as well as other toxic effects in the body. Symptoms include abdominal pain, choking, gasping, vomiting, and fever. Often these products may be identified by their characteristic odor. Mineral oil and motor oil are not as serious, since they usually do nothing more than cause diarrhea.
When providing treatment for the ingestion of petroleum distillates, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING unless told to do so by a physician or poison control center. Vomiting may cause additional poison to enter the lungs. However, the quantity of poison swallowed or special petroleum additives may make gastric lavage or the use of cathartics advisable.
1. If a physician or poison control center cannot be reached, give the victim 30 to 60 ml of vegetable oil.
2. Transport the victim immediately to a medical treatment facility.
Mussels, clams, oysters, and other shellfish often become contaminated with bacteria during the warm months of March through November. Numerous varieties of shellfish should not be eaten at all, so wherever you serve in the world, learn which local seafoods are known to be safe.