include resistance to gastric acid inactivation,
resistance to inactivation by penicillinase, and the
spectra of antimicrobial activity.
Although the penicillins are virtually nontoxic
to mammalian cells, there is a significant incidence
of anaphylaxis in varying degrees. Reactions in-
clude skin rash, contact dermatitis, mild gastro-
intestinal upset, oral lesions, and fever. Because
of the basic structure, there is a high degree of
cross-sensitivity among the various forms.
Penicillin is effective in the treatment of:
Bacterial endocarditis and pneumococcal
Hemolytic streptococcal infections
Clostridial infections such as gas gangrene
Anaerobic streptococcal infections
Rheumatic heart fever
Penicillin G (Aqueous)
ACTION AND USE. Penicillin G is in-
dicated for susceptible infections as listed under
the discussion of penicillins. It is available as a
potassium or sodium salt and is for parenteral use
USUAL DOSE. The dosage varies with the
infection. Doses of 10 million units or higher
should be given by intravenous infusion only.
Penicillin G Procaine, Aqueous (Wycillin)
ACTION AND USE. Penicillin G procaine
is indicated for deep intramuscular usage only in
susceptible infections as listed under the discus-
sion of penicillins. The action is more prolonged
than penicillin G.
USUAL DOSE. For uncomplicated gonor-
rhea, 4.8 million units intramuscularly at two sites
with 1 g of probenicid orally. Other dosages are
as prescribed by the physician.
Penicillin G Benzathine (Bicillin)
ACTION AND USE. This drug is indicated
for deep intramuscular usage in susceptible infec-
tions. It has a longer duration of action than most
of the other penicillins.
Penicillin V Potassium (Phenoxymethyl
Penicil]in) (Pen-Vee K, Betapen-VK,
ACTION AND USE. Penicillin V is used in
the treatment of susceptible infection as listed
under the discussion of penicillins. It is available
as oral tablets or powder for reconstitution for
oral suspension. It is more stable in acid media
than most of the other penicillins. It has the same
spectra of activity of penicillin G and is usually
the drug of choice for uncomplicated group A
beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections.
ACTION AND USE. This drug is a
penicillinase-resistant penicillin effective in
treating penicillinase-producing staphylococci. It
may be used to initiate therapy in any patient in
whom a staphylococcal infection is suspected.
USUAL DOSE. 250 to 500 mg every 6
hours. It is available in capsules or powder form
for oral suspension.
Ampicillin (Polycillin, Omnipen,
ACTION AND USE. Ampicillin is relatively
stable in an acid medium and is readily absorbed
after oral ingestion. It is effective against gram-
negative and gram-positive cocci and some gram-
negative bacilli. It is available in both oral and
USUAL DOSE. The range is 250 to 500 mg
every 6 hours, depending upon the diagnosis. For
the parenteral dosage, normal saline is the recom-
Methicillin Sodium (Staphcillin)
ACTION AND USE. Methicillin is a
penicillinase-resistant drug reserved for treatment
of penicillinase-producing staphylococcal
organisms. It is administered parenterally only.