however do not mean we can lessen our concern for fire and explosion hazards. The surface of all floors in the operating room must provide a path of electrical conductivity between all persons and equipment making contact with the floor to prevent the accumulation of dangerous electrostatic charges. All furniture and equipment should be constructed of metal or of other electrically conductive material and should be equipped with conductive leg tips, casters, or equivalent devices. Periodic inspections should be made of leg tips, tires, casters, or other conductive devices of furniture and equipment. This will ensure that they are maintained free of wax, lint, or other foreign material that may insulate them and defeat the purpose for which they are used. Excess lubrication of casters should be avoided to prevent accumulation of oil on conductive wheels. Dry graphite and graphite oil are preferable lubricants.
Rubber accessories for anesthesia machines should be of the conductive type, should be plainly labeled as such, and should be routinely tested to ensure that conductivity is maintained. It is essential that all replacement items be of conductive material.
All personnel entering the operating room should be in electrical contact with the conductive floor through the wearing of conductive footwear or an alternative method of providing a path of conductivity. Conductive footwear and other personnel-to-floor conductive equipment should be tested on a regularly scheduled basis.
All apparel worn in the operating room should be made of a nonstatic producing material. Fabrics of 100 percent cotton are the most acceptable. Fabrics made of synthetic blends may be used only if they have been treated by the manufacturer for use in the operating room. Wool blankets and apparel made of untreated synthetic fabrics are not permitted in the operating room.
Operating rooms must have adequate airconditioning equipment to maintain relative humidity and temperature within a constant range. The relative humidity should be kept at 55 to 60 percent. This level will reduce the possibility of electrostatic discharge and possible explosion of combustible gases. The temperature should be chosen on the basis of the well-being of the patient. The recommended temperature is between 65° and 74°F. The control of bacteria carried on dust particles is facilitated when the recommended humidity and temperature are maintained.
All oxygen cylinders in use or in storage will be tagged with DD Form 1191, Warning Tag for Medical Oxygen Equipment, and measures will be taken to ensure compliance with instructions 1 through 7 printed on the form. An additional tag is required on all cylinders to indicate EMPTY, IN USE, or FULL. Safety precautions should be conspicuously posted in all areas in which oxygen cylinders are stored and in which oxygen therapy is being administered. This posting should be made so it will immediately make all personnel aware of the precautionary measures required in the area.
All electrical service equipment, switchboards, or panelboards should be installed in a nonhazardous location. Devices or apparatus that tend to create an arc, sparks, or high temperatures must not be installed in hazardous locations unless these devices are of a type approved in accordance with the National Electrical Code. Lamps in a fixed position will be enclosed and will be properly protected by substantial metal guards or other means where exposed to breakage. Cords for portable lamps or portable electrical appliances must be continuous and without switches from the appliance to the attachment plug. Such cords must contain an insulated conductor to form a grounding connection between the electrical outlet and the appliance.
Nutrition is a scientific term applied to the process by which food elements are taken into the body to produce energy for body activity, rebuild body tissue, and assist in regulating all body functions. To meet these body needs, it is essential that a persons diet contain a proper balance of the essential food elements that include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. Because the well-nourished person is generally mentally and physically alert and fairly resistant to disease, dietary intake is an important factor in the diagnostic and therapeutic plan of the consumer who requires a health care service.
Carbohydrates are the most efficient source of energy. They provide work energy for body activities and heat energy for the maintenance of body temperature. Additionally, they are easily metabolized to provide quick energy. They may also be stored in the liver as glycogen to be used by the body when they are needed at a later time. 5-25