Control of domestic flies depends upon approved environmental sanitation in conjunction with selected application of insecticides. With proper sanitation, less dependence needs to be placed on insecticides. Any fermenting or decaying organic matter, including human and animal feces, dead animals, fish and meat refuse, and discarded food stuffs, are potential breeding places for flies. Prevention of fly breeding and entry into buildings reduces the potential for disease transmission.
Proper disposal of food service wastes, including all garbage and liquids, such as wash water, reduces the attraction of flies to dining facility areas. Garbage should be deposited in containers with tight-fitting lids, which should be washed regularly. Make sure these containers are kept outside of dining facilities, preferable off the ground on a stand or rack.
For troops in the field, short-term control of flies by chemicals may be the only practical method. Larviciding usually is not practical in large operations, because breeding places are too scattered for effective treatment. However, this method is indicated in areas of concentrated breeding, such as garbage handling zones, compost piles, and carcasses. In all larvicidal treatments, emphasis must be placed on getting the insecticide to the site where it can act on the larvae. Extensive reliance on larviciding, however, should be avoided since it probably precipitates the development of resistance. Where latrine contents are relatively dry, fly breeding can be controlled by sprinkling paradichlorobenzene (PDB) over the pit surface at a rate of approximately 2 ounces (59. 15 ml) per latrine per week. This treatment is effective only when pits are deep, dry, and unventilated.
Application of residual insecticides to areas of fly concentration may be necessary to provide an additional level of control. The surface areas to be treated include resting places in buildings, such as overhead structures, hanging cords, moldings, and door/window facings. Several insecticides from the Federal Supply Catalog can be applied as selective spot treatments and will provide good indoor control for about 1 week. Residual insecticides may be applied to resting places such as building exteriors near breeding sites, open sheds, garbage cans, shrubs, and low trees by means of spray equipment with a fantype nozzle, paint brushes, or rollers. Spray to the point of run-off and avoid contamination of food or utensils. Do not permit personnel or utensils to contact wet treated surfaces.
MOSQUITOES. Moquitoes rank first in importance among insects that transmit disease to man. The genera most frequently associated with disease transmission are Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex. Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria. Dengue is transmitted only by Aedes mosquitoes. The common mosquito, Aedes aegypti, transmits yellow fever. Several genera, including Culex, transmit the worms that cause filariasis. The causative viruses of arthropod-borne viral encephalitides are primarily transmitted by mosquitoes. Besides being disease-bearing agents, mosquitoes are an annoyance and can interfere with mission accomplishment in areas where high numbers occur.
Mosquitoes deposit their eggs on the surface of water or on surfaces subject to flooding. Larvae hatch and feed on organic matter in the water, pupate, and eventually change into adults. Only the females feed on blood.
Mosquito-control methods are classified as either permanent or temporary, depending on whether they are designed to eliminate breeding areas (source reduction) or simply to kill the present population. Permanent mosquito-control measures are considered in detail in NAVFAC MO-310.
Control of mosquito breeding is accomplished by the following means:
1. Simple draining of impounded water;
2. Filling in low spots;
3. Adding mosquito-eating fish (Gambusia) to larger permanent bodies of water;
4. Removing or burying small artificial containers (cans, tires, or other water-holding receptacles); or
5. Using larvicidal insecticides, which maybe in the form of liquids, dusts, or granules. The use of granules is indicated to penetrate dense vegetation or to prevent possible damage to crops (e.g., rice). OPNAVINST 6250.4 series defines the limited use of aircraft for insecticide dispersal.
Adult mosquitoes may be controlled by the application of residual and space sprays. Indoors, space sprays are recommended for immediate control. Treatment with a standard aerosol can should be at a rate of 7 seconds per 1,000 cubic feet of space. This will have little or no residual effect.