ACTION AND USE. Neomycin sulfate is
effective against certain gram-negative and gram-
positive bacteria. Normally used as a topical
preparation for the treatment of skin infections,
burn wounds, ulcers, and dermatoses, it may be
used orally for reduction of intestinal flora prior
to surgery involving the bowel or anus.
USUAL DOSE. 700 mg every 4 hours as
prescribed by a physician.
Gentamycin Sulfate (Garamycin)
ACTION AND USE. Gentamycin sulfate is
indicated in the treatment of serious systemic in-
fections of susceptible gram-negative organisms.
While the patient is on gentamycin, it is necessary
to monitor renal and hepatic function to deter-
mine if toxic levels are reached. Gentamycin is also
available as a topical preparation for the treat-
ment of burns and infected wounds, and as an
ophthalmic preparation for eye infections.
USUAL DOSE. The recommended dose for
patients with serious infections and normal renal
function is 3 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses.
Gentamycin is normally administered intramus-
cularly but can be administered intravenously.
The macrolide antibiotics constitute a large
group of bacteriostatic agents that inhibit protein
synthesis. They are effective against gram-positive
cocci, Neisseria, Hemophilus, and mycobacteria.
All are similar to penicillin in their antibacterial
spectra and are often used in patients who are sen-
sitive to penicillin.
Erythromycin (Ilotycin, Erythrocin,
ACTION AND USE. Because it has a bitter
taste and is destroyed by gastric acids, erythro-
mycin is usually administered as an enteric coated
tablet. Erythromycin is one of the drugs of choice
when penicillin is contraindicated. It is also
available as an ophthalmic ointment and as a
topical preparation for the adjunctive treatment
USUAL DOSE. 250 mg four times daily or
500 mg twice daily for oral preparations, and
1 g daily by slow intravenous infusion or in four
equally divided doses.
Clindamycin Hydrochloride (Cleocin)
ACTION AND USE. The use of clin-
damycin hydrochloride has often been associated
with severe colitis and profuse diarrhea; if this
condition occurs, the drug should be discontinued.
Clindamycin hydrochloride is indicated in the
treatment of susceptible anaerobic organisms. A
topical preparation is also available for the treat-
ment of acne.
USUAL DOSE. 150 to 300 mg every 6 hours
for the oral form and 600 to 1200 mg per daily
in 2, 3, or 4 equally divided doses for the in-
Vancomycin Hydrochloride (Vanocin)
ACTION AND USE. Vancomycin hydro-
chloride is bactericidal against many gram-positive
bacteria. It is indicated in potentially life-threaten-
ing conditions that cannot be treated with less
USUAL DOSE. 500 mg every 6 hours or 1 g
every 12 hours intravenously only; vancomycin
hydrochloride can be very irritating and painful
when administered intramuscularly.
In addition to the previously mentioned anti-
infectives, there are several other agents that are
effective in the treatment of different organisms.
ACTION AND USE. Rifampin is indicated
in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis; it
must be used in conjunction with at least one other
antituberculosis agent, usually ethambutol or
USUAL DOSE. 600 mg in a single daily ad-
ministration throughout the course of the disease.
ACTION AND USE. Isoniazid is indicated
in the treatment of tuberculosis and as a preven-
tive therapy for high risk persons, i.e., positive
tuberculin skin test, family members of a person
with tuberculosis, and newly infected persons.