Small objects that are lodged on the surface of the eye or on the membrane lining the eyelids can usually be removed by the following procedures:
1. Try to wash the eye gently with lukewarm, sterile water. A sterile medicine dropper or a sterile syringe can be used for this purpose. Have the victim lie down, with the head turned slightly to one side as shown in figure 4-46. Hold the eyelids apart. Direct the flow of water to the INSIDE corner of the eye, and let it run down to the OUTSIDE corner. Do not let the water fall directly onto the eyeball.
2. Gently pull the lower lid down, and instruct the victim to look up. If you can see the object, try to remove it with the corner of a clean handkerchief or with a small moist cotton swab. You can make the swab by twisting cotton around a wooden applicator, not too tightly, and moistening it with sterile water. CAUTION: Never use DRY cotton anywhere near the eye. It will stick to the eyeball or to the inside of the lids, and you will have the problem of removing it, as well as the original object.
3. If you cannot see the object when the lower victim to look down. Place the applicator lengthwise across the center of the upper lid. Grasp the lashes of the upper lid gently but firmly. Press gently with the applicator. Pull up on the eyelashes, turning the lid back over the applicator. If you can see the object, try to remove it with a moist cotton swab or with the corner of a clean handkerchief.
4. If the foreign object cannot be removed by any of the above methods, YOU MUST NOT MAKE ANY FURTHER ATTEMPTS TO REMOV EIT. Instead, place a small, thick gauze dressing over both eyes and hold it in place with a LOOSE bandage. This limits movement of the injured eye.
5. Get medical help for the victim at the earliest opportunity.
Figure 4-46.-Irrigating the eye.
Head wounds must be treated with particular care, since there is always the possibility of brain damage. The general treatment for head wounds is the same as that for other fresh wounds. However, certain special precautions must be observed if you are giving first aid to a person who has suvvered a head wound. lid is pulled down, turn-the upper lid back over a smooth wooden applicator. Tell the
1. NEVER GIVE ANY MEDICINE.
2. Keep the victim lying flat, with the head at the level of the body. Do not raise the feet if the face is flushed.
3. If the victim is having trouble breathing, you may raise the head slightly. If the wound is at the back of the head, turn the victim on his or her side.
4. Watch closely for vomiting and postiion the head to avoid aspiration of vomitus or saliva into the lungs.
5. Do not use direct pressure to control hemorrhage if the skull is depressed or obvoiusly fractured.
Wounds of the face are treated, in general, like other fresh wounds. However, in all facial injuries make sure the tongue or injured sodt tissue does not block the airway, causing a breathing obstruction. Keep the nose and throat clear of any obstructing materials and postion the victim so that blood will drain out fo the mouth and nose.