Figure 8-2.—Temperature comparison.The boiling point of water is 100°C andTo summarize, conversion formulas are as212°F. The difference between the boiling pointand the freezing point of water is 100° and 180°F.See figure 8-2. Therefore, within this span on thethermometers, 1°C equals 1.8°F.However, temperature readings on either scaleare taken in respect to the number of degreesbelow or above zero, thus 320 must be added tothe 180°F in order to obtain the total reading fromthe Fahrenheit zero point. Substituting thesevalues into the conversion formula (°C x 1.8)+ 32, we have (100° x 1.8) + 32° = 212°F.If we wish to convert Fahrenheit degrees tocentigrade degrees, the algebraic order of calcula-tion must be reversed and we find that (°F – 32°,+1.8 = °C. Substituting the values we find (212°– 32°) + 1.8 = 100°C.follows:EBULLITION—This is probably the mostcommon process involving heat. The term merelymeans boiling, to wit, raising the temperature ofa liquid to the point where it changes to vaporor steam. All liquids have a definite temperatureat which this occurs, a factor called the boilingpoint and the basis for separation from otherliquids by distillation.Boiling is used extensively in compounding,since in most cases the volubility of the prepara-tion is increased. As an example, consider makinginstant coffee with cold water compared to usinghot water.8-13

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