dose of marijuana, measurable physical effects reach a maximum within 1/2 hour and disappear in 3 to 5 hours.
The physical symptoms of Cannabis (marijuana) abuse include dryness of the mouth, irritation of the throat, bloodshot eyes, increased appetite, dizziness or sleepiness, and, in heavy smokers, a cough.
Adverse reactions to the drug include anxiety, fear, drying, depression, suspicion, delusions, and, in rare cases, hallucinations.
Although marijuana can produce psychological dependence, there is no evidence of physical dependence; therefore, there are usually no withdrawal symptoms following its discontinuance.
As in any emergency medical situation, priorities of care must be established. Conditions involving respiratory or cardiac failure must receive immediate attention before specific action is directed to the drug abuse symptom. General priorities of care are outlined below.
Check for adequacy of airway, breathing, and circulation, and for shock. Give appropriate treatment.
Keep the victim awake.
If the victim is sleepy or poorly responding to pain, stimulate by using cold wet towels, gentle shaking, conversation, and moving about. If the victim cannot be aroused, place him or her on his or her side so secretions and vomitus will drain from the mouth and not be aspirated into the lungs.
Induce vomiting if the victim is conscious and the drug was taken orally.
Prevent the victim from self-injury while highly excited or lacking coordination. Use physical restraints only if absolutely necessary.
Calm and reassure the excited victim by talking him or her down in a quiet, relaxed, and sympathetic manner.
Gather materials and information to assist in identifying and treating the suspected drug problem. Spoons, paper sacks, eye droppers, hypodermic needles, vials, or collapsible tubes are excellent identification clues.
The presence of capsules, pills, drug containers, or needle marks (tracks) on the victims body are also significant.
A personal history of drug use from the victim or those accompanying the victim is very important and may reveal how long the victim has been abusing drugs, approximate amounts taken, and time between doses. Also, knowledge of past medical problems, including history of convulsion (with or without drugs) is important.
Transport the victim and the materials collected to a medical treatment facility.
Brief medical facility personnel and present the materials collected at the scene upon arrival at the medical treatment facility.
Figure 4-71.Classification of burns.
Under the broad category of environmental injuries, we will consider a number of first aid problems. Exposure to extremes of temperature,