Figure 4-16.Insertion of esophageal obturator airway.
Figure 4-17.Structure of the neck to identify cricothyroid
care not to go too deeply, and a small bore airline
is then inserted into the trachea.
An alternate method is to use a 12 to 16 gauge
intercatheter. Locate the cricothyroid membrane
as above and insert the needle into the trachea.
Immediately upon penetrating the cricothyroid
membrane, thread the plastic catheter into the
trachea and remove the needle. The catheter can
then be connected to an oxygen line for
translaryngeal oxygen jet insufflation.
A cricothyroidotomy should not be attempted
except as a last resort when other methods of
opening the airway are unsuccessful.
In a first aid setting, the hospital corpsman
may have access to portable or fixed suctioning
devices equipped with flexible tubing, semirigid
tips, suction catheters, and nonbreakable collec-
tion bottles. The suction pressure should be tested
regularly and the equipment kept clean.
TECHNIQUE. After testing the apparatus,
attach a catheter or tip, and open the victims
mouth. Carefully insert the end into the pharynx.
Apply suction, but for no more than 15 seconds.
Suction may be repeated after a few breaths.
Cardiac arrest is the complete stoppage of
heart function. If the victim is to live, action must
be taken immediately to restore heart function.
The symptoms include absence of carotid pulse,
lack of heartbeat, dilated pupils, and absence of
A rescuer knowing how to administer car-
diopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) greatly in-
creases the chances of a victims survival. CPR
consists of external heart compression and ar-
tificial ventilation. This compression is performed
on the outside of the chest, and the lungs are ven-
tilated by the mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose
techniques. To be effective, CPR must be started
within 4 minutes of the onset of cardiac arrest.
The victim should be supine on a firm surface.
CPR should not be attempted by a rescuer
who has not been properly trained. If improperly
done, CPR can cause serious damage. It must
never be practiced on a healthy individual for
training purposes; use a training aid instead. To
learn this technique, see your medical education
department or an American Heart Association or